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Description:

The podcast for microbe lovers: reporting on exciting news about bacteria, archaea, and sometimes even eukaryotic microbes and viruses. Hosted by Jesse Noar.

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Podcast Episode's:
447: Big Bacteria Bank Behaviors
<p>This episode: Giant bacteria with many chromosomes in each cell carry extra genes to help them live in many different environments!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF447.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.7 MB, 12.7 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Propionibacterium</em> virus SKKY</p> <div><br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-11-giant-aquatic-bacterium-master.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a></div> <div><strong> </strong></div> <div><strong>Takeaways</strong></div> <div> <div> <div>We think of bacteria a certain way: too small to see and having mostly just a single large chromosome with all the genes they need for their lifestyle and not much more. And most bacteria are like that. But not all! Giant bacteria exist, some of which can be so large that individual cells can be seen without a microscope.</div> <div> </div> <div><em>Achromatium</em> species are one such kind of bacteria. They form clumps of minerals that take up most of their internal volume, but their cells are big enough to see and handle. In order to supply all parts of their vast innards with proteins, they have many copies of their chromosome distributed throughout their cytoplasm.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, a survey of <em>Achromatium</em> genomes from all different kinds of ecosystem revealed that even different species in very different environments all seem to share one set of genetic functions, but only use the ones they need for their particular lifestyle while archiving the rest.</div> </div> <div> </div> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Ionescu D, Zoccarato L, Zaduryan A, Schorn S, Bizic M, Pinnow S, Cypionka H, Grossart H-P. <a href= "https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa273" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Heterozygous, Polyploid, Giant Bacterium, Achromatium, Possesses an Identical Functional Inventory Worldwide across Drastically Different Ecosystems</a>. Mol Biol Evol <a href= "https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa273">https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa273</a>.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/01/210111190135.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">As with other infections, gut microbiota correlates with severity of COVID-19</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/01/210122112252.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Fungi help plants defend against aphids</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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446: Biofilm Benefits Bone Braces
<p>This episode: The biofilm that probiotic bacteria can leave behind on a titanium implant seems to help it integrate better with the existing skeleton, with less inflammation and risk of infection!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF446.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.5 MB, 7.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-26-2-226" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Methylobacterium organophilum</a></em></p> <div><br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-11-coating-metal-bone-implants-bacteria.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a></div> <div><strong> </strong></div> <div><strong>Takeaways</strong></div> <div> <div> <div>Skeletal implants make it a lot easier for many people to stay mobile as they age, but the surgical procedure of implanting is risky. Its invasive nature puts stress on the immune system, which puts stress on other systems, and the spread of antibiotic resistance is increasing the risk of a hard-to-treat infection.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, probiotic bacteria grow in a biofilm on titanium implants before being inactivated, leaving only the biofilm behind on the implant. This biofilm-coated implant showed improved bone integration, antimicrobial resistance that was not toxic to the body's own tissues, and reduced inflammation when implanted into rats.</div> </div> <div> </div> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Tan L, Fu J, Feng F, Liu X, Cui Z, Li B, Han Y, Zheng Y, Yeung KWK, Li Z, Zhu S, Liang Y, Feng X, Wang X, Wu S. 2020. <a href= "https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/46/eaba5723" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Engineered probiotics biofilm enhances osseointegration via immunoregulation and anti-infection</a>. Sci Adv 6:eaba5723.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://mbio.asm.org/content/11/6/e02634-20" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Certain gut microbes correlate with lower risk from norovirus</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/01/210111112133.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mixture of microbes similar to kombucha engineered to produce living functional materials</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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445: Living Lurking Landmine Locators
<p>This episode: Engineered bacteria encapsulated in little beads sense chemicals from landmines and give off light!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF445.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.4 MB, 9.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Bifidobacterium pullorum</em></p> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></div> <div> <div> <div>Landmines are a good way to take an enemy by surprise and do some damage. They're so good that some places in the world still aren't safe to go decades after a conflict, due to intact landmines hidden in the area. In order to detect them from a distance to aid in disarming efforts, we need something very good at detecting the faint odor they give off—something like bacteria!</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, bacteria are engineered to detect breakdown products of TNT in landmines and produce light—bioluminescence. These bacteria are encapsulated in polymer beads and are stable for months in the freezer, and could accurately pinpoint a landmine buried in sand for a year and a half.</div> </div> <div> </div> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Shemer B, Shpigel E, Hazan C, Kabessa Y, Agranat AJ, Belkin S. <a href= "https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1751-7915.13683" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Detection of buried explosives with immobilized bacterial bioreporters</a>. Microb Biotechnol <a href= "https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13683">https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13683</a>.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/12/201217095511.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Wastewater treatment plant could power itself from electricity produced by microbes</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-12-environment-affects-microbiota-health-dogs.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Microbial exposures correlate with presence or lack of allergies in both people and their dogs</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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444: Strange Sequence Stops Cell Subjugation
<p>This episode: An interesting bacterial genetic element protects against viruses in a unique way!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF444.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.1 MB, 10.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Mongoose associated gemykibivirus 1</p> <div><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-11-mystery-molecule-bacteria-revealed.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a></div> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></div> <div> <div> <div>Even single-celled, microscopic organisms such as bacteria have to deal with deadly viruses infecting them. And while they don't have an immune system with antibodies and macrophages like we do, they still have defenses against infection, mostly based on sensing and destroying viral genomes. Restriction enzymes cut viral genomes at specific places, and CRISPR/Cas targets and destroys specific viral sequences. Knowing this, when microbiologists contemplate a strange genetic element of unknown function in bacteria, it's worth considering that it may be relevant to defense against phages.</div> <div> </div> <div>The strange element in this case is retrons: a special reverse transcriptase enzyme takes a short non-coding RNA transcript and transcribes it into DNA, then links the RNA and DNA sequences together. These retrons are found in a variety of forms in a variety of microbes, and their function has been unknown up till now. In this study, one specific retron was found to defend bacteria against a number of phages. By comparing viruses, they discovered that this retron functions by sensing viruses' attempts to defeat another bacterial defense, a sort of second level of defenses. How common such a system is, what variants may exist, and how we may be able to use it for research or biotech purposes remain to be determined.</div> </div> <div> </div> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> >Millman A, Bernheim A, Stokar-Avihail A, Fedorenko T, Voichek M, Leavitt A, Oppenheimer-Shaanan Y, Sorek R. 2020. <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(20)31306-4" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Bacterial Retrons Function In Anti-Phage Defense</a>. Cell 183:1551-1561.e12.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/12/201214164320.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria can make biodegradable plastics from waste sludge</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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443: Gut Group Gives Gamma Guard
<p>This episode: Certain gut microbes protect mice from harmful effects of high-energy radiation!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF443.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.3 MB, 10.6 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Solenopsis_invicta_virus_1" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Solenopsis invicta</em> virus-1</a></p> <div><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201030111741.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a></div> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></div> <div> <div> <div>High-energy radiation can be very dangerous. Besides a long-term increased risk of cancer due to DNA damage, a high enough dose of radiation can cause lethal damage to multiple systems in the body, especially the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system. Finding new ways to treat or prevent damage from radiation would be very helpful for improving the safety of space travel, nuclear energy, and radiotherapy for cancer.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, some mice exposed to a typically lethal dose of radiation survived without ill effects, thanks to certain microbes in their gut. Transferring these microbes to other mice helped those mice survive radiation as well, and even just the metabolites that the bacteria produced were helpful for protecting the cells in the body most affected by radiation.</div> </div> <div> </div> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Guo H, Chou W-C, Lai Y, Liang K, Tam JW, Brickey WJ, Chen L, Montgomery ND, Li X, Bohannon LM, Sung AD, Chao NJ, Peled JU, Gomes ALC, van den Brink MRM, French MJ, Macintyre AN, Sempowski GD, Tan X, Sartor RB, Lu K, Ting JPY. 2020. <a href= "https://www.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aay9097" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Multi-omics analyses of radiation survivors identify radioprotective microbes and metabolites</a>. Science 370:eaay9097.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201118141850.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Algae incorporated into 3D-printed human tissues for research can provide oxygen for cells</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201119141732.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria in sea squirts produce potentially useful antifungal compound</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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442: Fossil Phototroph Phagocytosis
<p>This episode: Algae surviving impact that killed the dinosaurs seem to have consumed other organisms to make it through the dark times!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF442.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.1 MB, 10.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Chaetoceros tenuissimus</em> RNA virus 01</p> <div><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201030142129.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a></div> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></div> <div> <div> <div>Being able to look through time and learn about what might have happened to creatures throughout Earth's history is what makes paleontology great. Everyone knows about dinosaurs and what happened to them at the end of the Cretaceous period thanks to science. But what we can learn is not limited just to large organisms; there are ways to learn about microorganisms of the past as well, including by looking at fossils!</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, fossils of hard-shelled algae from around the end of the dinosaurs show that many of these microbes in the oceans went extinct at the same time due to the massive space impact. Debris blocked out sunlight for years, making it difficult for photosynthetic organisms to survive. So some of these algae appear to have survived by preying on smaller organisms, pulling them in through a hole in their shell.</div> </div> <div> </div> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Gibbs SJ, Bown PR, Ward BA, Alvarez SA, Kim H, Archontikis OA, Sauterey B, Poulton AJ, Wilson J, Ridgwell A. 2020. <a href= "https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/44/eabc9123" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Algal plankton turn to hunting to survive and recover from end-Cretaceous impact darkness</a>. Sci Adv 6:eabc9123.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://msystems.asm.org/content/5/6/e00542-20" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Phages could help treat diabetic wound infections without harming microbiota</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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441: Hyphal Hijacker Helps Harvests
<p>This episode: A fungus-infecting virus transforms the fungal foe into a friend of its host plant!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF441.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.1 MB, 8.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Hepacivirus J</p> <div> </div> <div><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200929123555.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a></div> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></div> <div> <div> <div>Viruses can be useful for treating various diseases, especially bacterial infections and cancer. Their ability to target certain cell types specifically makes them great at hunting down and killing disease-causing cells without harming the body's healthy tissue. And just as bacteriophages can work to treat bacterial disease in us, fungal viruses could help to treat serious fungal infections in crop plants.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, a fungus-infecting virus goes beyond treating a deadly fungal disease in rapeseed plants. Fungus infected with this virus no longer causes disease, but lives in harmony with the host plant, protects it from other fungal diseases, and even helps it to grow better.</div> </div> <div> </div> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Zhang H, Xie J, Fu Y, Cheng J, Qu Z, Zhao Z, Cheng S, Chen T, Li B, Wang Q, Liu X, Tian B, Collinge DB, Jiang D. 2020. <a href= "https://www.cell.com/molecular-plant/abstract/S1674-2052(20)30293-8" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A 2-kb Mycovirus Converts a Pathogenic Fungus into a Beneficial Endophyte for <em>Brassica</em> Protection and Yield Enhancement</a>. Mol Plant 13:1420–1433.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-03037-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Engineering <em>E. coli</em> to turn carbon dioxide into biomass</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201104102205.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Radiation super-resistant bacteria survive 1 year exposed to low Earth orbit</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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440: Prokaryotes Pay for Passage
<p>This episode: Bacteria pay for the privilege of cruising around soil on fungus filaments!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF440.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.7 MB, 11.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_acetobutylicum" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Clostridium acetobutylicum</a></em></p> <div><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200924114128.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a></div> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></div> <div> <div>In the complex environment of soil, many different kinds of organisms coexist. Some compete with each other, while others cooperate in fascinating interactions. One example is how bacteria can swim through a film of water surrounding the filaments of fungi, allowing them to traverse more quickly and reach new locations.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, an interaction between fungus and bacterium is discovered in which the bacteria benefit from the fungus in enhanced ability to travel, and the fungus benefits by absorbing vitamins that the bacteria produce.</div> <div> </div> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Abeysinghe G, Kuchira M, Kudo G, Masuo S, Ninomiya A, Takahashi K, Utada AS, Hagiwara D, Nomura N, Takaya N, Obana N, Takeshita N. 2020. <a href= "https://www.life-science-alliance.org/content/3/12/e202000878" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Fungal mycelia and bacterial thiamine establish a mutualistic growth mechanism</a>. Life Sci Alliance 3(12):202000878.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201014141145.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Honeybee gut microbes help them define their social groupings</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-10-funky-cheese-microbes.html" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Smells that cheese fungi make help cheese microbe community develop</a></li> </ul> </div> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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439: Microbes Mitigate Mushroom Morbidity
<p>This episode: Bacteria protect farmed mushrooms from damage by other bacteria by breaking down their toxins!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF439.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (4.9 MB, 7.1 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Tomato mosaic virus</p> <p><strong>Takeaways</strong></p> <div>Almost all organisms are vulnerable to pathogenic microbes that make them sick or cause damage. Most also have other microbes that help them grow better or protect them from pathogens. This includes animals, plants, and also fungi. <p>In this study, bacterial pathogens produce a toxin that causes button mushrooms to turn brown and rot. However, other bacteria can degrade this toxin and protect the fungus, and can also degrade molecules the pathogens produce to help them swarm to new places, restricting their movement.</p> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Hermenau R, Kugel S, Komor AJ, Hertweck C. 2020. <a href= "https://www.pnas.org/content/117/38/23802" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Helper bacteria halt and disarm mushroom pathogens by linearizing structurally diverse cyclolipopeptides</a>. Proc Natl Acad Sci 117:23802–23806.</div> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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438: Bacteria Bait Bug Babies
<p>This episode: Actinomycete bacteria are often helpful to insects, but some can be deadly yet still attractive!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF438.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.7 MB, 8.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Streptomyces corchorusii</em></p> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18462-0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a></div> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> <div> <div>Actinomycete bacteria do a lot of interesting things. They grow like fungi, with mycelia and spores, and produce many interesting compounds, including antibiotics and other useful pharmaceuticals. They often team up with insects, producing such compounds to assist them in competing with other organisms or resisting disease.</div> <div> </div> <div>But such amazingly helpful powers of chemistry can also be amazingly harmful. In this study, multiple strains of these bacteria were able to kill fruit fly larvae that ingested their spores. The toxin the bacteria produced was a chemical that interferes with cells' DNA-protein interactions. The bacteria also produced an odor that, in certain concentrations, lured the larvae to their doom.</div> </div> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Ho LK, Daniel-Ivad M, Jeedigunta SP, Li J, Iliadi KG, Boulianne GL, Hurd TR, Smibert CA, Nodwell JR. 2020. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18462-0" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Chemical entrapment and killing of insects by bacteria</a>. Nat Commun 11:4608.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2762-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Eukaryotes borrowed viperin genes for proteins that prokaryotes use to fight viruses</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200928152913.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria can break down plastic even faster with newly discovered enzyme</a></li> </ul> <div><strong>Also news</strong>, Feedspot ranked BacterioFiles in the <a href="https://blog.feedspot.com/virology_podcasts/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">top 5 virology podcasts</a>! Check out the list for other good shows about viruses.</div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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437: Balmy Bacteria Build Bone
<p>This episode: Warmth helps mice build stronger bones, mediated by bacteria producing certain compounds!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF437.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.8 MB, 9.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Aquaspirillum serpens</em></p> <div> </div> <div><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200911093027.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a></div> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> <div> <div>Bones aren't just solid, structural supports for the body's tissues. They're active and alive, housing important components of the immune system, and also capable of being broken down and built up in response to changes in the body's interactions with the environment. Various things can affect bone mass and health, including nutrition, temperature, age, and even the body's microbes.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, two of these effects are found to interact. Warmth leads to increased bone density in mice, and this effect can be attributed to the microbes in the mice, and transmitted from one mouse to another just by transplanting microbes adapted to warmth. Even the particular chemicals the microbes produce that mediate this effect are discovered.</div> </div> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Chevalier C, Kieser S, Çolakoğlu M, Hadadi N, Brun J, Rigo D, Suárez-Zamorano N, Spiljar M, Fabbiano S, Busse B, Ivanišević J, Macpherson A, Bonnet N, Trajkovski M. 2020. <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/abstract/S1550-4131(20)30425-3" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Warmth Prevents Bone Loss Through the Gut Microbiota</a>. Cell Metab 32:575-590.e7.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238537" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Salt-tolerant bacteria could help plants grow in coastal areas</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200910150326.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Fire ants like to nest near potentially antifungal bacteria</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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436: Copper Concentrates Culture Current
<p>This episode: Copper electrodes, rather than killing bacteria in microbial fuel cells, allow them to generate higher densities of electric current!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF436.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.0 MB, 7.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Xipapillomavirus 2</p> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02482-3" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a></div> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> <div> <div>Copper is widely used as a way to make surfaces and materials antimicrobial, to cut down on the spread of pathogens in hospitals and other environments. Among other mechanisms, it reacts with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species that are very harsh on microbial proteins. But copper is also a good electrical conductor, which would be useful to use in microbial fuel cells, which exploit bacterial metabolism to generate electricity. Microbes form biofilms on an electrode and transfer electrons to it as a way for them to generate energy. Most such fuel cells have used graphite electrodes to avoid toxicity.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, fuel cell bacteria grew well on a copper electrode in an oxygen-free environment. The copper actually allowed them to increase the amount of current they produced per unit of area, as ionic copper diffused through the biofilm and allowed electrons to flow through the biofilm to the electrode from layers farther from the electrode that otherwise would not have access. Even graphite electrodes could be improved by adding these copper ions to the biofilm directly.</div> </div> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Beuth L, Pfeiffer CP, Schröder U. 2020. <a href= "https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2020/ee/d0ee01281e" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Copper-bottomed: electrochemically active bacteria exploit conductive sulphide networks for enhanced electrogeneity</a>. Energy Environ Sci 13:3102–3109.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://aem.asm.org/content/86/17/e01181-20" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Lizard gut microbes are affected by temperature, and may affect lizard heat tolerance</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200902095126.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Phages in ice show evidence of trading genes easily to adapt to new environments</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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435: Invader Introducing Infrared Invokes Immunity
<p>This episode: Combining <em>Salmonella</em> with something called photoimmunotherapy to attack tumors in multiple ways!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF435.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.2 MB, 11.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2130441/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Shimwellia blattae</a></em></p> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> <div> <div>Distinguishing healthy from unhealthy tissue is one of the big challenges when dealing with cancer. Since cancer is derived from healthy tissue, there are many similarities between them that make it hard to target it specifically. This is especially important when cancer is spread in multiple places throughout the body, as opposed to a single tumor that can be removed locally.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, bacteria modified to make them safer were injected into mice with tumors. The bacteria alone were capable of doing some damage to the tumors, and this damage happened to make the tumors darker. Using this color change, the scientists targeted the tumors with lasers to heat them up and kill them in an isolated manner. This had the added benefit of inducing an immune response against the cancer that could target it throughout the body.</div> </div> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Yi X, Zhou H, Chao Y, Xiong S, Zhong J, Chai Z, Yang K, Liu Z. 2020. <a href= "https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/33/eaba3546" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria-triggered tumor-specific thrombosis to enable potent photothermal immunotherapy of cancer</a>. Science Advances 6:eaba3546.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/08/200813131259.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria could help make nylon more sustainably</a></li> <li><a href="https://aem.asm.org/content/86/17/e00891-20" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Glowing bacteria living in nematodes that kill insects may also interact with and protect plant roots</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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434: Killer Carries Compact Cas
<p>This episode: Large phage discovered that contains a compact version of the CRISPR/Cas defense/gene editing system!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF434.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.9 MB, 8.6 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3457173/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Stenotrophomonas</em> virus IME13</a></p> <div><br /> <div><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/07/200716144728.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> <div> <div>CRISPR/Cas systems have made a lot of things in gene editing much easier in certain organisms. It's almost as easy as just getting the cells to produce the Cas protein and putting in an RNA sequence to tell it where to go! But in some cases, these requirements are too much to work well.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, a more compact version of CRISPR/Cas was discovered in large bacteriophages. These systems help the viruses compete with other viruses and defend against host defenses sometimes. The Cas protein is half the size of the standard Cas most used in gene editing, and it has fewer other requirements to function in new cells, so it could be better in versatility and potential in applications with strict space constraints.</div> </div> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Pausch P, Al-Shayeb B, Bisom-Rapp E, Tsuchida CA, Li Z, Cress BF, Knott GJ, Jacobsen SE, Banfield JF, Doudna JA. 2020. <a href= "https://science.sciencemag.org/content/369/6501/333" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">CRISPR-CasΦ from huge phages is a hypercompact genome editor</a>. Science 369:333–337.</div> </div> </div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/07/200723115234.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Example of how cooperation becomes more beneficial than independence</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/fulltext/S1931-3128(20)30288-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Programming bacteria to detect and kill specific other microbes in a mixed community</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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433: Probiotic Promotes Pathogen Peacefulness
<p>This episode: A probiotic can protect intestine-like cell growths from destruction by pathogens, but it can also be infected by a virus that makes it more harmful to intestinal cells!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF433.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.9 MB, 10.1 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus</p> <div><em> </em></div> <div><a href="https://phys.org/news/2020-07-bad-coli-good.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> <div> <div>There are many strains of <em>Escherichia coli</em>. Some are pathogenic, in the gut or the urinary tract, and a subset of those are very dangerous, such as the enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 strain. Many others are commensals, living peacefully as part of our gut community. And some strains can be beneficial to the host, protecting from and reducing the severity of disease. One such strain is called <em>E. coli</em> Nissle.</div> <div> </div> <div>This study used an advanced model of human intestines called organoids, where stem cells are induced to develop into hollow spheres of intestinal epithelium in which all cell types of a normal intestinal wall are represented. <em>E. coli</em> pathogens typically destroy these organoids and escape from inside, but Nissle was able to prevent this destruction and enable coexistence between the pathogen and the host cells. Nissle suffered for this protection though; O157:H7 carries a toxin-encoding phage that can infect and kill susceptible <em>E. coli</em> strains. Those Nissle cells that survived this infection could resist the phage, but were not as beneficial to the organoids due to the toxin they now produced.</div> </div> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Pradhan S, Weiss AA. 2020. <a href= "https://mbio.asm.org/content/11/4/e01470-20" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Probiotic Properties of <em>Escherichia coli</em> Nissle in Human Intestinal Organoids</a>. mBio 11(4):e01470-20.</div> </div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-06-microbiome-confers-resistance-cholera.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Certain gut microbes can help people resist cholera</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/07/200708105955.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Photosynthetic microbes engineered to produce spider silk</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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432: Moses Microbes Maintain Moisture
<p>This episode: Bacteria living in the driest place on earth have ways to extract water from the mineral structures of rocks!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF432.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (3.7 MB, 5.4 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Irkut lyssavirus</p> <div><em> </em></div> <div><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200504155203.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> <div> <div>Microbes living in extremely dry conditions have it tough. Water is important both for the chemistry and structure of all cells. Desert microbes are very good at acquiring and holding on to the water they can find, but in places such as the Atacama Desert in Chile, there's almost none available.</div> <div> </div> <div>However, microbes can be very resourceful. In this study, phototrophs were discovered that can actually extract water molecules bound up in the crystalline structure of the mineral gypsum, and this allows them to survive in hyperarid regions. They do this by secreting organic acid molecules to etch the rock and release the water, converting gypsum to anhydrite, which is a mineral with the same chemical structure except without the water.</div> </div> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Huang W, Ertekin E, Wang T, Cruz L, Dailey M, DiRuggiero J, Kisailus D. 2020. <a href= "https://www.pnas.org/content/117/20/10681" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Mechanism of water extraction from gypsum rock by desert colonizing microorganisms</a>. Proc Natl Acad Sci 117:10681–10687.</div> </div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200615115816.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Cholesterol-lowering drugs associated with fewer gut microbiota problems</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200625122735.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Using bacterial hormones to get bacteria to produce more interesting molecules</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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431: Conductive Cables Control Carbon
<p>This episode: Cable bacteria around rice roots transport electrons and help prevent formation of methane!</p> <div> </div> <div>Thanks to Vincent Scholz for his contribution!</div> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF431.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.7 MB, 8.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Vibrio alginolyticus</em></p> <div><em> </em></div> <div><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/04/200420105045.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <div><br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> <div> <div>Transforming other things into methane is a great way to make a living for some kinds of microbes. These tend to live under still water, like in rice fields or wetlands, or in the guts of cattle. And while this methane could be useful as natural gas if collected, it's a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide when released into the atmosphere.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, cable bacteria were inoculated into rice pots in the lab. Cable bacteria transfer electrons from deeper down in the ground up to the surface to generate energy, and in the process generate sulfate. This sulfate allows other microbes to outcompete the methane producers, reducing the amount of methane produced from rice cultivation in the lab. This may be helpful to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from rice agriculture.</div> </div> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Scholz VV, Meckenstock RU, Nielsen LP, Risgaard-Petersen N. 2020. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-15812-w" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Cable bacteria reduce methane emissions from rice-vegetated soils</a>. 1. Nat Commun 11:1878.</div> </div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200504114124.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Viruses in fecal transplants, not just bacteria, may be useful for health</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200527105055.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Superworms and their symbiont bacteria can degrade styrofoam</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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430: Dextrose Deposits Delay Dormancy
<p>This episode: Bacteria that can store sugar as glycogen have multiple advantages when food is only available sporadically!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF430.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.2 MB, 10.4 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Carnivore bocaparvovirus 3<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></p> <div> <div> <div>Almost all habitats experience some sort of change and fluctuation; very few are totally stable, depending on the timeframe. So strategies to change and adapt with changing conditions can greatly help an organism thrive. For example, methods of storing energy are helpful when food is only available sporadically.</div> <div> </div> <div>Some bacteria, like humans, can store sugar in a polymer called glycogen, which can be quickly produced when food is abundant and quickly broken down to ease a transition to fasting. In this study, bacteria that could produce and use glycogen were able to stay active longer and grow better in the face of intermittent starvation. They were even better able to acquire new food when more became available.</div> </div> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Sekar K, Linker SM, Nguyen J, Grünhagen A, Stocker R, Sauer U. 2020. <a href="https://aem.asm.org/content/86/9/e00049-20" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Bacterial Glycogen Provides Short-Term Benefits in Changing Environments</a>. Appl Environ Microbiol 86.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-04-uncovers-microbial-life-radioactive-storage.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria can grow so well in spent nuclear fuel ponds, they make the water cloudy</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/04/200415133426.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Certain probiotic bacteria might be able to degrade gluten and protect people with celiac</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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429: Springtails Smell, Spread Streptomyces
<p>This episode: Bacteria in soil produce smells to attract arthropods that eat them but also spread their spores!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF429.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.2 MB, 9.0 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC140569/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Blotched snakehead virus</a></p> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://phys.org/news/2020-04-unearths-science.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> <div> <div>Soil, especially after a rain, often has a characteristic "earthy" smell. This soil smell is actually the result of certain bacteria producing a volatile chemical called geosmin. Many geosmin producers are in the <em>Streptomyces</em> genus, which produces a large variety of interesting chemicals, but geosmin is one of the few that is nearly universal in the genus.</div> <div> </div> <div>This study found that insect-like arthropods called springtails are attracted to geosmin. These animals usually feed on fungi, but they will also eat bacteria when available. Despite this result, the bacteria continue to produce the chemical, which is linked to their sporulation cycle. The study found that springtails carry intact bacterial spores to new places stuck to the insides and outsides of the animal, and this enhances the dispersal ability of the bacteria.</div> </div> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Becher PG, Verschut V, Bibb MJ, Bush MJ, Molnár BP, Barane E, Al-Bassam MM, Chandra G, Song L, Challis GL, Buttner MJ, Flärdh K. 2020. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0697-x" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Developmentally regulated volatiles geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol attract a soil arthropod to <em>Streptomyces</em> bacteria promoting spore dispersal</a>. 6. Nat Microbiol 5:821–829.</div> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/03/200331130031.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Silicon nanowires help bacteria harvest light to fix carbon dioxide</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-04-lignin-yields-additional-bacteria-role.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacterium produces membrane balls containing enzymes to help digest lignin</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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428: Microbes May Manage Mysteries
<p>This episode: The skin microbes that people leave behind may be used to identify them, even after other people have touched the same surface!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF428.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.4 MB, 7.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Actinobacillus lignieresii</em><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></p> <div> <div>The microbial communities in and on our bodies are highly complex and highly varied between people; this complexity has raised the question of whether the microbes that people transfer onto things they touch could be used in forensics, to track their movement and activity, like fingerprints or DNA evidence. One difficulty with this approach is that microbe communities are constantly changing as conditions change or other microbes are introduced.</div> <div> </div> <div>This study simulated such microbial tracking in a couple of scenarios, such as touching door handles in an office building and touching various surfaces in a home in a mock burglary. Tracking a person on door handles worked fairly well for up to an hour after the contact, even if other people had also touched the same door handles. However, the accuracy of identifying the "burglar" in a home was not very high, but modifying the analysis from looking at the community as a whole to only rare microbes relatively unique to an individual improved the results.</div> </div> <p><br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Hampton-Marcell JT, Larsen P, Anton T, Cralle L, Sangwan N, Lax S, Gottel N, Salas-Garcia M, Young C, Duncan G, Lopez JV, Gilbert JA. 2020. <a href= "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0379073820302139" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Detecting personal microbiota signatures at artificial crime scenes</a>. Forensic Sci Int 313:110351.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/03/200326124124.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Using slime molds to model the gravity-based web of gas and dark matter between galaxies</a></li> <li><a href="https://aem.asm.org/content/86/8/e02938-19" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Using bacteria to produce antibody-like molecules</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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427: Simple Cells Stay Strong
<p>This episode: Bacterial cells with their genomes removed can still be active and useful!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF427.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (10.2 MB, 14.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.picornaviridae.com/rosavirus/rosavirus_a/rosavirus_a.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Rosavirus A</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></p> <div> <div>Microbes have amazing biochemical transformation abilities, creating and breaking down many compounds and proteins. This makes them great candidates for many purposes, in medicine, industry, and environmental remediation. In some of these purposes, though, there are risks associated with adding foreign microbes, especially engineered ones, that can replicate themselves and possibly persist, into new places.</div> <div> </div> <div>To avoid this risk, this study turns intact bacteria into SimCells, simplified entities with most of their genetic material removed, leaving only the proteins and other components and just enough DNA to accomplish desired tasks. These SimCells were able to continue performing tasks for around 10 days before running out of the cellular resources needed to keep going. One of these tasks was producing a compound that damaged cancer cells in a dish but left non-cancerous cells unharmed.</div> </div> <p><br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Fan C, Davison PA, Habgood R, Zeng H, Decker CM, Salazar MG, Lueangwattanapong K, Townley HE, Yang A, Thompson IP, Ye H, Cui Z, Schmidt F, Hunter CN, Huang WE. 2020. <a href= "https://www.pnas.org/content/117/12/6752" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Chromosome-free bacterial cells are safe and programmable platforms for synthetic biology</a>. Proc Natl Acad Sci 117:6752–6761.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13068-020-01672-5" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Biofuel-producing bacteria can generate electricity at the same time</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1751-7915.13554" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Using dried microbial biomass as fertilizer works pretty well</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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426: Sensory Cilia Supply Susceptibility
<p>This episode: A fungus paralyzes its tiny worm prey by acting on the worm's own sensory hairs!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF426.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.0 MB, 8.7 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Bat associated cyclovirus 9<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></p> <div> <div>Not all predators are fast or agile; some are sneaky, or good trap builders, or just good chemists. The predator club includes animals but also plants and even fungi. For example, the oyster mushroom fungus can paralyze roundworms in the soil that touch its filaments, then degrade their bodies and consume their nutrients.</div> <div> </div> <div>The mechanism of this paralysis has been a mystery, but it's one step closer to being solved. This study found that intact sensory cilia, little hairs on the worm's head that help it sense its surroundings, are required for the paralysis to work. Worms with mutations in the structure of their cilia were protected from paralysis. How exactly the fungus acts on these cilia and the neurons they connect to, though, is still unknown.</div> </div> <p><br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Lee C-H, Chang H-W, Yang C-T, Wali N, Shie J-J, Hsueh Y-P. 2020. <a href="http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.1918473117" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Sensory cilia as the Achilles heel of nematodes when attacked by carnivorous mushrooms</a>. Proc Natl Acad Sci 117:6014–6022.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-02-food-scientists-repurpose-bread-microbes.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bread waste could be good food for useful fermentations</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-02-beetle-boost-partnered-antifungal-bacteria.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Symbiotic bacteria in beetle picked up gene that helps defend beetle eggs from fungus</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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425: Paired Predators Prevent Pathogen Persistence
<p>This episode: This episode: A bacteriophage and bacterial predator can wipe out a population of bacteria that could develop resistance to each individually!</p> <div>Thanks to Laura Hobley, J. Kimberley Summers, and Jan-Ulrich Kreft for their contributions!</div> <div> </div> <div>Also a note: I will be taking a short break from podcasts while I rebuild my collection of awesome microbiology stories to talk about.</div> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF425.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.8 MB, 9.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Blackbird associated gemycircularvirus 1<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></p> <div> <div>Bacteriophages and bacterial predators that prey on other bacteria are both very good at killing large numbers of bacteria. But bacteria as a whole are also very good at surviving being killed in large numbers; there are almost always a few that have the right genes to overcome whatever is doing the killing. This is what makes the threat of antibiotic resistance so scary, and why phage therapy is both very promising and very limited.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, however, a combination of phages and the bacterial predator <em>Bdellovibrio bacteriovorans</em> is able to completely eradicate a population of bacteria, or at least reduce their numbers below a detectable level. A mathematical model based on these data predicts that despite the two killers working independently, they can effectively eliminate all the individual prey organisms that would otherwise be able to resist killing by either one alone.</div> </div> <p><br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Hobley L, Summers JK, Till R, Milner DS, Atterbury RJ, Stroud A, Capeness MJ, Gray S, Leidenroth A, Lambert C, Connerton I, Twycross J, Baker M, Tyson J, Kreft J-U, Sockett RE. 2020. <a href= "https://jb.asm.org/content/202/6/e00629-19" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Dual Predation by Bacteriophage and <em>Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus</em> Can Eradicate <em>Escherichia coli</em> Prey in Situations where Single Predation Cannot</a>. J Bacteriol 202.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12866-020-1708-z" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Combination of beneficial bacteria could substitute for fertilizer somewhat</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00493-8" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Gut bacteria turn broccoli molecules into potentially healthy compounds</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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424: Stranger Cells Switch Stable States
<p>This episode: Certain bacteria can greatly affect the makeup of a microbial community, even if they quickly disappear!</p> <div> </div> <div>Thanks to Dr. Daniel Amor for his contribution!</div> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF424.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.3 MB, 9.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2272077/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Gadgets Gully virus</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-02-microbes-environment-dying.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></p> <div> <div>Microbial communities show more than just competition between species. Stable assemblies of many species can exist for long periods in places like the human gut, despite constant minor shifts in conditions. More major shifts, or invaders like pathogens coming in and taking over, can cause big disruptions in the community and lead to long-term gut dysbiosis, which can be, interestingly, also a stable community. </div> <div> </div> <div>This study shows that invaders into a community, even if they don't persist for very long, can cause a shift from one stable state to another, by favoring the dominance of a species or group that was not dominant before, for example by changing the pH of the environment. So competition is always present. This could be helpful to know for efforts to intentionally shift community structures.</div> </div> <p><br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Amor DR, Ratzke C, Gore J. 2020. <a href= "https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/8/eaay8676" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Transient invaders can induce shifts between alternative stable states of microbial communities</a>. Sci Adv 6:eaay8676.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200130144335.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Symbiotic bacteria engineered to protect honeybees from pathogens</a></li> <li><a href= "https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-020-0791-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mouse diet differences in fiber show much more effect on microbiome than differences in fat</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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423: Roundworm Riders Route Rootworm Resistance
<p>This episode: Helping insect-killing bacterial symbionts of nematodes evolve resistance to chemicals that major corn pests use to defend themselves!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF423.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (10.0 MB, 14.0 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03684.x" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Listeria</em> virus PSA</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></p> <div> <div>Interactions between species and even kingdoms in nature can be complex and multilayered. This means that when we want to intervene to cause a particular outcome, there may be multiple points at which we can act, but the consequences may be hard to predict.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, action was taken to counteract the damage the Western corn rootworm causes to corn crops, using a tiny roundworm that attacks the insect pest with deadly bacteria. The rootworm defends itself by accumulating plant-produced toxins that inhibit the bacteria. Directed evolution was used to make the bacteria more resistant, and this led to more effective killing of the pest.</div> </div> <p><br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Machado RAR, Thönen L, Arce CCM, Theepan V, Prada F, Wüthrich D, Robert CAM, Vogiatzaki E, Shi Y-M, Schaeren OP, Notter M, Bruggmann R, Hapfelmeier S, Bode HB, Erb M. 2020. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41587-020-0419-1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Engineering bacterial symbionts of nematodes improves their biocontrol potential to counter the western corn rootworm</a>. 5. Nat Biotechnol 38:600–608.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://msystems.asm.org/content/5/1/e00013-20" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Altering pathogenic bacteria to reduce disease with genome-integrating phage</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12866-019-1688-z" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria could inhibit fungus that causes deadly disease of bananas</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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422: Frigid Phototrophs Fuel Fords
<p>This episode: Producing both biodiesel and bioethanol fuels from cold-loving Arctic algae!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF421.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.7 MB, 12.6 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Farm_virus" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Royal Farm virus</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong></p> <div>Renewable fuels such as biofuels can allow existing infrastructure and vehicles to continue to operate in a more sustainable manner, which could reduce the cost and impact of switching to new/different systems of transportation like electricity. Economically competitive methods of producing biofuels are still being explored and developed.</div> <div> </div> <div>In this study, Arctic algae are grown in cold temperatures using only light, carbon dioxide, and a few minerals, and then broken down to produce biodiesel and bioethanol, which can be used as fuel in many different internal combustion engines. The amounts produced are comparable to other algae-based systems being researched, and use of the cold-loving organisms could reduce the cost of production in colder latitudes and seasons.</div> <p><br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong></p> <p>Kim EJ, Kim S, Choi H-G, Han SJ. 2020. <a href= "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-020-1660-z" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Co-production of biodiesel and bioethanol using psychrophilic microalga <em>Chlamydomonas</em> sp. KNM0029C isolated from Arctic sea ice</a>. Biotechnol Biofuel 13:20.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200113093741.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Certain foods could activate or inhibit bacteriophages and modulate the gut microbiota</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-01-altruism-bacteria-colonies.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Some antibiotic-producing bacterial colonies have specialized members that do all the antibiotic production</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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421: Nucleocapsids Navigate Nano Nuggets
<p>This episode: Using phages to target gold nanoparticles to infecting bacteria, then using light to heat the nanoparticles just enough to kill the bacteria!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Raymond Borg and Huan Peng for contributing!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF421.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (10.6 MB, 15.4 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pantoea_agglomerans" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Pantoea agglomerans</em></a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200113165056.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Viruses that infect bacteria, bacteriophages, are often very good at overcoming bacterial defenses and killing them. This raises the possibility, and many times actuality, of using phages to treat bacterial infections that are no longer treatable with antibiotics. But bacteria can evolve resistances to viruses as well as drugs, and using multiplying, evolving entities as treatments in people raises questions about the safety and consistency of the treatment.<br /> <br /> This study circumvents these questions by using phages for delivery and targeting of bacteria rather than the therapeutic agent itself. The actual treatment is done with tiny rods of gold, gold nanorods, bound to the phage surface. When a certain wavelength of light hits these nanorods, they vibrate enough to generate enough heat in their immediate surroundings to render nearby bacteria nonviable. Thus the infection is treated in a very localized, targeted way that doesn't leave any active bacteria or phages behind. The authors have plans to study this approach as a topical treatment of wounds.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Peng H, Borg RE, Dow LP, Pruitt BL, Chen IA. 2020. <a href= "https://www.pnas.org/content/117/4/1951" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Controlled phage therapy by photothermal ablation of specific bacterial species using gold nanorods targeted by chimeric phages</a>. Proc Natl Acad Sci 117:1951–1961.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200114090948.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Two bacteria growing together on agar make pretty patterns</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-14133-x" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Marine bacteria kill and digest other bacteria</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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420: Cell Societies Stay Stable
<p>This episode: Simplified gut communities growing in bioreactors grow and metabolize reproducibly, with only moderate variations, even when individual members of the community are absent!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF420.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.2 MB, 11.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4591318/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Citrobacter</em> virus Merlin</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> The community of microbes in our guts is highly complex, with thousands of species all interacting with each other, with our own cells, and with the contents of our diet. Each region of the gut has a different collection of microbes as well. Many questions remain to be answered about the functions and fluctuations of these communities. How can we study such a complex system? Which species, if any, are most important for its continued function?<br /> <br /> In this study, a simplified community of only 14 species is grown repeatedly in bioreactors, and one species at a time is left out of the community to see what will change in its absence. This reveals effects different species have on the overall growth, carbon source consumption, and production of various metabolites relevant to gut health. Some microbes have large effects, but none of them appears to be crucial for the overall function and stability of the community.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Gutiérrez N, Garrido D. 2019. <a href= "https://msystems.asm.org/content/4/4/e00185-19" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Species Deletions from Microbiome Consortia Reveal Key Metabolic Interactions between Gut Microbes</a>. mSystems 4:e00185-19.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1462-2920.14913" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Some archaea can survive for a while trapped inside salt crystals</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12866-020-1699-9" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria degrade BPA in soil</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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419: Marine Methane Microbe Multiplication
<p>BacterioFiles is back! This episode: Measuring how quickly marine methane-consuming microbes become active when new methane enters an area!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF419.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (9.0 MB, 13.0 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Torque teno midi virus 6<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Oceans and the organisms living in them have a large effect on the planet, in terms of climate and gases they absorb from or release into the atmosphere. They are a source of much of a potent greenhouse gas, methane, but microbes living in ocean sediments also consume large amounts of methane. These anaerobic methanotrophic archaea generate energy for themselves by transforming methane and sulfate into carbonate and sulfide.<br /> <br /> In this study, however, methane-consuming microbes were only found active at sites of methane seepage. Even in sites where methane had previously been present, only few of these microbes were present and active. After enriching samples of these sediments for up to 8 months, still the only activity that was seen was from actively methane-consuming communities. So once dispersed, such communities seem slow to regenerate as the locations of methane seepage shift.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Klasek S, Torres ME, Bartlett DH, Tyler M, Hong W-L, Colwell F. 2020. <a href= "https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1462-2920.14895" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Microbial communities from Arctic marine sediments respond slowly to methane addition during <em>ex situ</em> enrichments.</a> Environ Microbiol 22:1829–1846.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2020-01-birds-strange-gut-microbiomesprobably.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bird and bat microbiomes have some similarities</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200108160314.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Twins often share certain gut microbes, even if they've been living apart for decades</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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418: Special Sea Species Swallows Cells
<p>This episode: A newly discovered species of bacteria consumes other bacteria as prey by engulfing them!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF418.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.7 MB, 12.6 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: SARS-CoV-2! This is the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, the current pandemic. For more up-to-date information, please refer to the <a href= "https://www.asm.org/Press-Releases/2020/COVID-19-Resources" target="_blank" rel="noopener">American Society for Microbiology</a>, <a href="http://www.microbe.tv/twiv/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">This Week in Virology</a>, and other reputable sources. Stay healthy!<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> There are bacteria living almost every different lifestyle you can think of, including predatory, preying on other bacteria. Since bacterial cells are usually quite rigid, bacterial predators usually consume others either by burrowing inside them or digesting them from outside, rather than engulfing prey like eukaryotes often do.<br /> <br /> The study here discovers a new kind of bacteria, in the group called Planctomycetes, known for having unusually flexible cells and internal compartments like eukaryotes. This new species does engulf its prey, including bacteria and even tiny algae, and digests them inside itself. It possesses multiple adaptations that suit it for this lifestyle.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Shiratori T, Suzuki S, Kakizawa Y, Ishida K. 2019. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-13499-2" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Phagocytosis-like cell engulfment by a planctomycete bacterium</a>. Nat Commun 10:1–11.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41587-019-0363-0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Engineering a common industrial yeast strain to fix carbon dioxide</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200103141052.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Lake microbes convert microplastics into essential fatty acids</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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417: Bacteriophage Blocks Bacterial Bouncers
<p>This episode: A phage defends its genome against bacterial host defenses by building a wall to keep them out!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF417.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.0 MB, 10.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Myroides odoratus</em> and <em>M. odoratimimus</em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-12-crispr-resistant-viruses-safe-rooms-shield.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Parasites and their hosts are constantly in arms races with each other, each thriving best when it acquires new and more effective methods of attack, defenses, defenses against defenses, and so on. Bacterial defenses against viruses that infect them mostly involve cutting up viral genomes, either by the indiscriminate specific-cutting restriction enzymes, or by adaptive, sequence-sensing CRISPR/Cas systems.<br /> <br /> Bacteriophages have proteins that can defend against the CRISPR/Cas system, but they mostly require the sacrifice of multiple failed infections before the proteins build up enough to defeat the defense. In this study, a phage is discovered that can immediately defend against all DNA-cutting systems, by constructing a nucleus-like protective compartment inside the host.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Mendoza SD, Nieweglowska ES, Govindarajan S, Leon LM, Berry JD, Tiwari A, Chaikeeratisak V, Pogliano J, Agard DA, Bondy-Denomy J. 2020. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1786-y" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A bacteriophage nucleus-like compartment shields DNA from CRISPR nucleases</a>. Nature 577:244–248.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-13468-9" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Helpful vaginal microbes inhibit HIV infection</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-019-0631-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Engineering bacteria to fix nitrogen that grain plants can use</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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416: Oxygen Or Other Oxidizes Iron?
<p>This episode: Earth's iron deposits could have been created by anaerobic light-harvesting microbes instead of those that make oxygen!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF416.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (9.3 MB, 13.5 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Streptomyces avidinii</em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/12/191202102059.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> In the ancient earth, the sun was dimmer, the world was colder, and oxygen was rare because photosynthesis had not yet evolved. Without oxygen to oxidize it, iron remained in its soluble, more accessible form, and many organisms took advantage of it for anaerobic metabolism.<br /> <br /> But was it photosynthesis and the oxygen it created that transformed most of the planet's iron into its insoluble form, creating large iron deposits in the ground? This study explores the possibility that it was another form of light-harvesting metabolism, called photoferrotrophy, that uses light and the transformation of iron to generate energy. This hypothesis is found to be consistent with the evidence we have about what the early earth was like.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Thompson KJ, Kenward PA, Bauer KW, Warchola T, Gauger T, Martinez R, Simister RL, Michiels CC, Llirós M, Reinhard CT, Kappler A, Konhauser KO, Crowe SA. 2019. <a href= "https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/11/eaav2869" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Photoferrotrophy, deposition of banded iron formations, and methane production in Archean oceans</a>. Sci Adv 5:eaav2869.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/12/191205130526.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Gut microbes help whales digest tricky fats in their diet</a></li> <li><a href= "https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1462-2920.14888" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria deliver antibiotic to competitors using capsules made of its own membrane</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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415: Global Glomus Growth Guesses
<p>This episode: A global estimate of plants and their root fungi shows how agriculture may have greatly affected soil carbon storage over time!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF415.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.7 MB, 8.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Rhizobium</em> virus RHEph4<br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191107084034.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Even small organisms can have a big effect on the climate of the planet if there are enough of them. This includes trees, which are small relative to the planet, and also includes the fungi that attach to the roots of trees and other plants. These mycorrhizal fungi thread subtly through the soil, some occasionally popping up mushrooms, and transfer valuable nutrients they gather to the trees in exchange for carbon fixed from the air.<br /> <br /> Knowing how big an effect a given kind of organism has requires knowing how much of it is around. This study collates data from various surveys of global plant populations and the fungi that interact with their roots, to estimate a global picture of the fungi below our feet. It estimates that a kind of fungus that stores more carbon in the soil may have been replaced in many areas with fungi that store less, or no fungi at all, due to the transformation of land from wild areas to farmland.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Soudzilovskaia NA, van Bodegom PM, Terrer C, Zelfde M van’t, McCallum I, Luke McCormack M, Fisher JB, Brundrett MC, de Sá NC, Tedersoo L. 2019. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-13019-2" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Global mycorrhizal plant distribution linked to terrestrial carbon stocks</a>. Nat Commun 10:1–10.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191122155125.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Phages bind to fish mucosal surfaces and protect from infection</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/12/191204090813.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Examining how archaea affect meteorites</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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414: Producing Proton Power Perpetually
<p>This episode: Microalgae can produce hydrogen, but other metabolic pathways take priority, except when special engineered hydrogenase enzymes can overcome this limitation!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF414.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.4 MB, 12.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Alphapapillomavirus 11<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> There are many options being explored as ways to replace fossil fuels. Electricity and batteries are good, but they have their limitations, especially for long-distance high-energy travel such as airplanes. Hydrogen is one good option: high energy density, clean-burning, simple to produce. Microbes can produce hydrogen through various metabolic pathways, including fermentation, nitrogen fixation byproduct, and photosynthesis. However, competing metabolic pathways make microbial hydrogen production less efficient.<br /> <br /> In this study, scientists engineer a hydrogenase enzyme for hydrogen production in microalgae that can compete better with carbon fixation as a destination for the electrons and protons that hydrogen production requires. This engineered enzyme allowed the algae to produce hydrogen continuously, even during photosynthesis.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Ben-Zvi O, Dafni E, Feldman Y, Yacoby I. 2019. <a href= "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-019-1608-3" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Re-routing photosynthetic energy for continuous hydrogen production <em>in vivo</em></a>. Biotechnol Biofuels 12:266.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191030132706.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Plants use arsenic-dumping genes from bacteria to get essential nutrients</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191104112838.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Another study engineering better viruses for phage therapy</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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413: Finding Fire Fungi Footholds
<p>This episode: Some fungi only form fruiting bodies after forest fires; where do they hide the rest of the time? At least for some of them, the answer is: inside mosses!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Daniel Raudabaugh for his contribution!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF413.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.2 MB, 9.0 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-26-1-11" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Nocardia brevicatena</em></a><br /> <em><br /></em> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191025113007.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Forest fires can do a lot of damage, but life grows back quickly. Certain kinds of plant seed actually only germinate after a fire, and a similar thing is true of certain kinds of fungi: they only form fruiting bodies (like mushrooms, for spreading spores) after a fire. For plants, the advantage may come from increased access to light with some or all of the canopy burned away, and fungi may benefit from less competition on the ground. But in between burn events, these fire-loving (pyrophilous) fungi seem to disappear. Where do they go?<br /> <br /> The study here sought an answer, suspecting an association with some mosses that reappeared soon after a forest fire in North Carolina in 2016. They looked for fungi lurking as endophytes inside moss and other samples, both by growing them on agar and by DNA sequencing, and they found a number of different known pyrophilous fungi. Some of these were in soil, or samples from outside the burned area, but the majority were inside mosses growing in the recently burned zone.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Raudabaugh DB, Matheny PB, Hughes KW, Iturriaga T, Sargent M, Miller AN. 2020. <a href= "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1754504819300716" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Where are they hiding? Testing the body snatchers hypothesis in pyrophilous fungi</a>. Fungal Ecol 43:100870.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://mbio.asm.org/content/10/5/e02307-19" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Probiotic yeast species could inhibit pathogenic yeasts</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191030110037.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Plant passes on nitrogen fixing symbionts to offspring</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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412: Carbon Concentration Complicates Crop Cooperation
<p>This episode: Looking at the effects of almost doubling CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations on the interaction between wheat varieties and beneficial fungi!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF412.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.1 MB, 11.8 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Lato River virus<br /> <em><br /></em> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191024075015.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> As the world's population grows, feeding everyone will grow more challenging. Advances in technology in the past have made today's population possible, but future advances may be needed, especially in the face of an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.<br /> <br /> Soil microbes that partner with crop plants for the benefit of each may be part of the solution. One option to explore is a group called mycorrhizal fungi, which associate with plant roots to extend their nutrient-gathering ability, in exchange for carbon compounds produced by photosynthesis. This study examined the influence of increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere on the interaction of several varieties of wheat with these fungi.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Thirkell TJ, Pastok D, Field KJ. <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.14851" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Carbon for nutrient exchange between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and wheat varies according to cultivar and changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration</a>. Glob Change Biol.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jam.14489" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Microbes could make paper whitening more environmentally friendly</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191017140238.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Compound from rotifers could prevent transmission of eukaryotic parasite</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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411: Parasite Produces Partial Plant-like Predator
<p>This episode: Giant virus in newly discovered microscopic marine predator encodes several light-harvesting proteins!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF411.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.8 MB, 11.4 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Dolphin mastadenovirus A<br /> <em><br /></em> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190926114005.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Giant viruses are distinct in many ways from other viruses, even aside from their size. One way is the large number and variety of genes they carry in their genome. Though many of their genes are unknown in origin and function, many others appear to take the place of essential reproductive functions, such as translation and protein synthesis. This allows them to assume more control of their host's metabolism and control its resources more optimally.<br /> <br /> In this study, the sequence of a giant virus was discovered seemingly infecting a newly discovered microscopic marine predator. The eukaryotic cell feeds on smaller microbes such as bacteria, but strangely, the virus carries genes for several light-harvesting proteins, possibly converting a heterotrophic predator into a partial phototroph.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Needham DM, Yoshizawa S, Hosaka T, Poirier C, Choi CJ, Hehenberger E, Irwin NAT, Wilken S, Yung C-M, Bachy C, Kurihara R, Nakajima Y, Kojima K, Kimura-Someya T, Leonard G, Malmstrom RR, Mende DR, Olson DK, Sudo Y, Sudek S, Richards TA, DeLong EF, Keeling PJ, Santoro AE, Shirouzu M, Iwasaki W, Worden AZ. 2019. <a href= "https://www.pnas.org/content/116/41/20574" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">A distinct lineage of giant viruses brings a rhodopsin photosystem to unicellular marine predators</a>. Proc Natl Acad Sci 116:20574–20583.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-10-mussels-harbor-strains-bacteria-gills.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Deep-sea mussels collect multiple symbiont microbes to use best one for current environment</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-10-tiny-droplets-bacteria-survive-daytime.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Microscopic water droplets help bacteria survive on dry leaves</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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410: Microbes Modify Muscle Measurement
<p>This episode: Mice that got a microbe transplant from humans with higher physical function performed better in certain ways than mice receiving microbes from humans with lower physical function!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF410.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.7 MB, 9.8 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stenotrophomonas_maltophilia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Stenotrophomonas maltophila</a></em><br /> <em><br /></em> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190917193639.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Our bodies and our microbe communities are closely interconnected, with effects going both ways. Studies had previously shown that making changes to the microbe communities of mice could even affect the physical function and body composition of the mice.<br /> <br /> This study aimed at addressing the same question in humans. There were certain consistent differences in microbial communities between elderly people with high ability to function physically, compared with low functioning people. These differences carried over in transplants of microbes from people to mice, and mice receiving microbes from high-functioning humans did better in tests of grip strength than mice receiving microbes from low-functioning people.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Fielding RA, Reeves AR, Jasuja R, Liu C, Barrett BB, Lustgarten MS. 2019. <a href= "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0531556519304772" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Muscle strength is increased in mice that are colonized with microbiota from high-functioning older adults</a>. Exp Gerontol 127:110722.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191003114034.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Engineering better viruses for phage therapy</a></li> <li><a href="https://peerj.com/articles/7726/" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Using staph bacteria to clean up metal-polluted environments</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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409: Marine Methane Mostly Munched
<p>This episode: Microbes in low-oxygen zones in the ocean consume significant amounts of methane anaerobically!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF409.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.2 MB, 7.6 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Mojiang henipavirus<br /> <em><br /></em> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190910134309.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Methane is a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Fortunately there's not as much of it in the atmosphere, but even smaller amounts can have significant effects on the climate.<br /> <br /> One source of methane is low-oxygen zones in the ocean, where certain kinds of archaea make methane as part of their energy metabolism. This study found that other anaerobic microbes in the same areas consume much of this methane, preventing it from reaching the atmosphere.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Thamdrup B, Steinsdóttir HGR, Bertagnolli AD, Padilla CC, Patin NV, Garcia‐Robledo E, Bristow LA, Stewart FJ. 2019. <a href= "https://aslopubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/lno.11235" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Anaerobic methane oxidation is an important sink for methane in the ocean’s largest oxygen minimum zone</a>. Limnol Oceanogr 64:2569–2585.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12476-z" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Correlated microbiome metabolites with compounds in blood of twins</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1462-2920.14808" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria inhibit soil fungi via airborne chemicals</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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408: Currents Carry Cloud Creators
<p>This episode: Ocean bacteria brought up from the sea floor into the air can help create clouds!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF408.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.1 MB, 8.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Streptomyces thermodiastaticus</em><br /> <em><br /></em> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190829115428.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> The ocean is an important player affecting the climate of the planet, in many ways. Its effects on clouds influence the amount of solar radiation reflected back into space or trapped as heat, and microbes play a role in this effect. Certain microbes make particles that form the nucleus of water droplets or ice crystals that make up clouds, and other microbes can perform this nucleation themselves.<br /> <br /> In this study, an unusual combination of a phytoplankton bloom and strong winds and currents, all in the right places, led to a large number of ice-nucleating bacteria being fed and then brought up from the sea floor and launched into the air, possibly affecting weather patterns in the Arctic.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Creamean JM, Cross JN, Pickart R, McRaven L, Lin P, Pacini A, Hanlon R, Schmale DG, Ceniceros J, Aydell T, Colombi N, Bolger E, DeMott PJ. 2019. <a href= "https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2019GL083039" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ice Nucleating Particles Carried From Below a Phytoplankton Bloom to the Arctic Atmosphere</a>. Geophys Res Lett 46:8572–8581.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-02770-7" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas) could save bananas from fungus that wipes them out</a></li> <li><a href="https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/9/eaaw9969" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Potentially useful antibiotic produced by gut microbe</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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407: Fungus Facilitates Phototroph Feeding
<p>Probably the last episode of the year. See you in the next!<br /> <br /> This episode: Fungus living inside plants helps them form partnerships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF407.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.9 MB, 8.5 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Prevotella_intermedia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Prevotella intermedia</a></em><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Plants are very good at acquiring carbon, but they can often use some help with other nutrients. Many form partnerships with microbes such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria or mycorrhizal fungi that can help gather nutrients from the soil better than the plants' own roots.<br /> <br /> In this study, legume plants could form a partnership with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in its roots, but a fungus living inside the plant could enhance this partnership even more, increasing the amount of nitrogen acquired and influencing the community of microbes around the plant roots in ways favorable to all partners.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Xie X-G, Zhang F-M, Yang T, Chen Y, Li X-G, Dai C-C. 2019. <a href= "http://mbio.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mBio.00728-19" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Endophytic Fungus Drives Nodulation and N<sub>2</sub> Fixation Attributable to Specific Root Exudates</a>. mBio 10:e00728-19, /mbio/10/4/mBio.00728-19.atom.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190912112430.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Diet could affect antibiotic impact on the gut microbiome</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190919142342.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Feeding gut microbes particular preferred foods can manipulate the community structure</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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406: Different DNA Destroys Disease Drivers
<p>This episode: DNA from related species can kill certain pathogens when they incorporate it into their genome!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF406.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.9 MB, 11.5 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Ungulate tetraparvovirus 3<br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/fulltext/S1931-3128(19)30358-0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Paper summary</a> (paywall)<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> <em>Neisseria gonorrhoeae</em>, the bacteria that cause gonorrhea, have the unusual ability of taking up DNA from their surroundings at any time and making use of it in their own genome. This helps them acquire useful traits that help them survive better, such as antibiotic resistance. But it turns out that the ability is also a secret weakness!<br /> <br /> This study showed that when <em>N. gonorrhoeae</em> takes up DNA from harmless, commensal species of <em>Neisseria</em> in the body, the DNA is similar enough to be incorporated into the genome but different enough that it kills the pathogen. This effect also occurs with a serious pathogen in the same genus, <em>N. meningitidis</em>.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Kim WJ, Higashi D, Goytia M, Rendón MA, Pilligua-Lucas M, Bronnimann M, McLean JA, Duncan J, Trees D, Jerse AE, So M. 2019. <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/abstract/S1931-3128(19)30347-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Commensal <em>Neisseria</em> Kill <em>Neisseria gonorrhoeae</em> through a DNA-Dependent Mechanism</a>. Cell Host Microbe 26:228-239.e8.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190904090309.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Kombucha could be good model system for studying microbial cooperation</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-09-serotonin-popular-anti-depressant-affect-gut.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Antidepressants can modify bacterial metabolism of serotonin in the gut</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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405: Coated Colonizers Counteract Corrosion
<p>This episode: Coating metal surfaces with artificial biofilms could help keep the surfaces corrosion-free even in the ocean!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF405.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.3 MB, 9.1 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Hymenopteran ambidensovirus 1<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> The ocean can be a harsh place for metal surfaces. Between the water, the salt, and oxygen (near the surface), corrosion is a common reality. Microbes in the ocean can contribute to this too, degrading metal structures to obtain energy for their metabolism. They colonize surfaces in biofilms that can be difficult to remove, a process called biofouling.<br /> <br /> In this study, instead of trying to remove or prevent biofilms on surfaces, artificial biofilms were created by coating the surfaces and specially selected bacterial cells with polymers. This approach did not prevent colonization by other organisms in the sea, but preliminary results suggested that the community that did take up residence was not as corrosive as the communities found on uncoated steel.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Rijavec T, Zrimec J, Spanning R van, Lapanje A. 2019. <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/advs.201901408" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Natural Microbial Communities Can Be Manipulated by Artificially Constructed Biofilms</a>. Adv Sci 6:1901408.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-08-microorganisms-iron-sheet-piling-degradation.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Some microbe biofilms can protect outdoor metal sheets from corrosion</a></li> <li><a href= "https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1462-2920.14765" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How bacteria can be helpful for growing edible mushrooms</a> (review)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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404: Phages Force Food Finding
<p>This episode: Another climate-related story: Cyanobacteria infected by viruses continue taking up nutrients from their environment, using it to make more viruses than would otherwise be possible!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF404.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.3 MB, 9.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "http://www.walpa.org/waterline/march-2014/investigating-the-role-of-viruses-in-microcystis-sp-bloom-collapse/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Microcystis</em> virus Ma-LMM01</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-07-viruses-affect-climate-probes-effects.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Though global warming is a global problem, accurate models for predicting where things are headed need to incorporate the activity of even the smallest organisms, if they're numerous enough. Photosynthesis and other activities of microbes in the oceans are a big sink for carbon, but cycles of other nutrients and also viruses can affect the carbon cycle.<br /> <br /> In this study, phages infecting photosynthetic ocean bacteria were able to continue their host's uptake of nitrogen from the environment even after mostly shutting down the host's own protein production and growth. This has implications for how viruses affect carbon cycling by cyanobacteria and how quickly populations of these bacteria may grow or die off.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Waldbauer JR, Coleman ML, Rizzo AI, Campbell KL, Lotus J, Zhang L. 2019. <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/116/31/15590" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Nitrogen sourcing during viral infection of marine cyanobacteria</a>. Proc Natl Acad Sci 116:15590–15595.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190820200449.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Transplants of gut microbes help koalas eat wider range of food</a></li> <li><a href= "https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1462-2920.14793" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Skin bacteria can help attract (or repulse) mosquitoes</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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403: Mercury Modifies Microbe Metabolism
<p>This episode: First episode of a climate-related arc! Considering microorganisms is important when predicting the amount of carbon coming from soil as temperature increases!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF403.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (4.7 MB, 6.75 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Streptomyces</em> virus Zemlya<br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-07-microbes-soil-respiration.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Soil as a whole has a big influence on the climate of the planet, by enabling the communities of organisms that live in it to interact and grow, taking up gases from the atmosphere and putting others back in. Even aside from plants that grow in it, the other organisms in soil can respire and break down compounds to produce CO2, adding to what's in the atmosphere already.<br /> <br /> There has long been observed a relationship between ambient temperatures and this respiration in soil, such that more heat means more activity and more gases released from the soil, but today's study found that the microbial biomass in a given piece of land can have a big effect on the temperature/respiration relationship.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Čapek P, Starke R, Hofmockel KS, Bond-Lamberty B, Hess N. 2019. <a href= "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038071719301506" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Apparent temperature sensitivity of soil respiration can result from temperature driven changes in microbial biomass</a>. Soil Biol Biochem 135:286–293.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11274-019-2702-1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria could help replace fertilizer for plants</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-08-microbiome-ciliates.html" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Ciliate protists have bacterial microbiomes too</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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402: Microbe Membranes Mobilize Microglia
<p>This episode: Gut microbes can stimulate immune cells in mouse brains to fight off viral infections!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF402.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (9.0 MB, 13.0 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Streptoverticillium mobaraense</em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190716081050.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> The central nervous system, including the brain, is a protected area of the body. Pathogens that get in can do a lot of damage, including memory loss, paralysis, and death, so there's a strict barrier in healthy people that keeps most things out of this area: the blood-brain barrier. The immune system is also kept separate, so special cells called microglia do the patrolling and protection of the brain.<br /> <br /> Nevertheless, microbes in the gut can influence the function of the immune system in the brain, even from a distance. In this study, mice lacking gut microbes did not have as effective an immune response to a virus infecting the brain, and it was found that molecules from bacterial outer membranes were sensed by microglia to activate their defensive response.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Brown DG, Soto R, Yandamuri S, Stone C, Dickey L, Gomes-Neto JC, Pastuzyn ED, Bell R, Petersen C, Buhrke K, Fujinami RS, O’Connell RM, Stephens WZ, Shepherd JD, Lane TE, Round JL. 2019. <a href= "https://elifesciences.org/articles/47117" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">The microbiota protects from viral-induced neurologic damage through microglia-intrinsic TLR signaling</a>. eLife 8:e47117.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190722111923.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Certain microbes associated with slower progression of degenerative disease in mice</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190724104026.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Fungus produces compound that neutralizes skunk odor</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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401: Phototrophs Fill Fungal Filaments
<p>This episode: In this partnership between fungus and algae, the algae eventually take up residence inside their partner!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF401.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.4 MB, 12.1 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_wilt" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Erwinia tracheiphila</a></em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190723163943.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a>/<a href= "https://elifesciences.org/articles/49448" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Summary article</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Partnerships and cooperation between otherwise free-living organisms is common in the natural world. Partnering with a photosynthetic organism is a smart approach, allowing the partner to get its energy from the sun and making gathering nutrients easier for the phototroph, and possibly offering protection as well. But in most partnerships, each partner stays separated by its own cell membrane.<br /> <br /> In this study, a fungus and an alga grow well together, exchanging carbon for nitrogen, similar to how lichens operate. But after a month or so of co-culture, the algae apparently enter the cells of the fungus somehow and live inside it, happily growing and dividing, turning the fungus green.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Du Z-Y, Zienkiewicz K, Vande Pol N, Ostrom NE, Benning C, Bonito GM. 2019. <a href="https://elifesciences.org/articles/47815" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Algal-fungal symbiosis leads to photosynthetic mycelium</a>. eLife 8:e47815.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190708122355.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Skin microbe transplants could produce healthier skin communities</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190717122557.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Algae took genes from bacteria to deal with harsh conditions</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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400: Considering Consumables' Community Correlations
<p>This episode: Figuring out how gut communities change with changes in diet!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF301.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.1 MB, 8.8 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Hepacivirus A<br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190715164650.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Diet can play a big role in our health. It's not a magic pill that can cure or prevent anything, but a good diet can significantly reduce many health risks for the average person, compared with a bad diet.<br /> <br /> Diet also has a big effect on the community of microbes in our gut, and this may play a role in the health effects we see from diet, so understanding how food and microbes interact is important. This study looked at the diet quality of participants in several food categories, and correlated this with various kinds of microbes found inside them.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Liu Y, Ajami NJ, El-Serag HB, Hair C, Graham DY, White DL, Chen L, Wang Z, Plew S, Kramer J, Cole R, Hernaez R, Hou J, Husain N, Jarbrink-Sehgal ME, Kanwal F, Ketwaroo G, Natarajan Y, Shah R, Velez M, Mallepally N, Petrosino JF, Jiao L. 2019. <a href= "https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/110/3/701/5530748" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Dietary quality and the colonic mucosa–associated gut microbiome in humans</a>. Am J Clin Nutr 110:701–712.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190627164743.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Sea slug uses defensive toxins that bacteria make for algae it eats</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190627113947.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Good bacteria help bats survive deadly fungus</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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399: Conductor Creating Carbon Canvases
<p>This episode: Bacteria can aide the production of the useful material graphene, using their ability to add electrons to external surfaces!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF399.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.7 MB, 11.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Brevibacterium frigoritolerans</em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190710163413.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Advanced materials often take advanced techniques to create, but they offer numerous benefits: increased strength and flexibility, smaller size, more options. One such material is graphene, which is basically a sheet of carbon atoms linked together like chainmail. It is only a single atom thick but is amazingly strong, mostly transparent, and good at conducting heat and electricity.<br /> <br /> The trick is, it's hard to make in large quantities cheaply and easily. Sheets of carbons can be obtained from blocks of graphite, but these sheets are graphene oxide, which lack the desirable properties of graphene. Chemical methods can be used to remove the oxidation, but they are harsh and difficult. Luckily, bacteria are great at microscopic remodeling. In this study, electron-transferring bacteria are able to reduce the graphene oxide to graphene with properties almost as good as are achieved by chemical reduction.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Lehner BAE, Janssen VAEC, Spiesz EM, Benz D, Brouns SJJ, Meyer AS, van der Zant HSJ. 2019. <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/open.201900186" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creation of Conductive Graphene Materials by Bacterial Reduction Using <em>Shewanella oneidensis</em></a>. ChemistryOpen 8:888–895.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190621220744.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Frog skin gut bacteria correlate with resistance to deadly virus</a></li> <li><a href= "https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-019-0709-3" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Skin microbiota could be transplanted to treat skin conditions</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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398: Marathon Microbes Maximize Mileage
<p>This episode: Bacteria found in the guts of serious athletes help mice exercise longer by transforming their metabolic waste!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF398.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.3 MB, 10.6 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aggregatibacter_actinomycetemcomitans" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Aggregatibacter</em> (<em>Actinobacillus</em>) <em>actinomycetemcomitans</em></a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190624111441.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Our gut microbes affect many aspects of health, and many aspects of how we live affect our microbes. One such aspect is physical exertion, which has been associated with enrichment of various microbes in the guts of athletes. This observation led to the question: are these microbes just benefiting from the high levels of exertion, or are they able to contribute also?<br /> <br /> This study found that certain such bacteria, when given to mice, enabled the mice to run for a longer period on a treadmill. These microbes break down lactic acid, which is generated in our bodies when we push our physical limits, but the study provided evidence that the longer run times were due not to removal of this waste product, but to the propionate compound produced by its degradation.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Scheiman J, Luber JM, Chavkin TA, MacDonald T, Tung A, Pham L-D, Wibowo MC, Wurth RC, Punthambaker S, Tierney BT, Yang Z, Hattab MW, Avila-Pacheco J, Clish CB, Lessard S, Church GM, Kostic AD. 2019. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-019-0485-4" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Meta-omics analysis of elite athletes identifies a performance-enhancing microbe that functions via lactate metabolism</a>. Nat Med 25:1104–1109.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190614111919.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Aphids hijacked viral gene to determine whether they grow wings</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190619094839.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Phage therapy could help treat green sea turtles</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="http://bit.ly/BFGooglePodcasts" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href= "https://bit.ly/BfAndroid" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Android</a>, or <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/BacterioFiles">Facebook</a>.</p>
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397: Plant Promotes Pathogen-Prohibiting Partner
<p>This episode: Plants stimulate their root bacteria to compete better, and these bacteria help the plants resist disease!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF397.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.3 MB, 10.6 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Bacillus_circulans" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacillus circulans</a></em><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> In some ways, plants' roots are like our gut. They both absorb nutrients, and they both have complex communities of microbes living alongside the host cells. These microbes can assist their hosts in various ways, and get fed in return.<br /> <br /> In this study, one species of root bacterium is able to compete against others by producing an antimicrobial compound. The plant stimulates this production with chemical signals, and benefits from its symbionts' increased competitiveness because the bacterium helps the plant resist infection.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Ogran A, Yardeni EH, Keren-Paz A, Bucher T, Jain R, Gilhar O, Kolodkin-Gal I. 2019. <a href= "https://aem.asm.org/content/85/13/e00512-19" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">The Plant Host Induces Antibiotic Production To Select the Most-Beneficial Colonizers</a>. Appl Environ Microbiol 85:e00512-19.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190613103142.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Plant virus influences aphid viral infection, which possibly increases spread of both</a></li> <li><a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/mbo3.755" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Producing bioplastics from low-cost carbon sources</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>. Support the show at <a href= "https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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396: Bacteria Boost Blood Bank Budgets
<p>This episode: Bacterial enzymes could convert donated blood to be compatible with more people in need!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF396.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.0 MB, 11.7 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-72-12-3115" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Cucumber leaf spot virus</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-06-enzymes-blood-human-gut-biome.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Blood transfusions using donated blood save many lives. Unfortunately, most donations can't be given to just anyone that needs blood; there must be a match in blood type between donor and recipient, or else a life-threatening reaction could occur in the recipient's body. So type A can't donate to type B, or vice versa, but type O is compatible with the other types.<br /> <br /> In this study, bacterial enzymes found in human gut microbes have the ability to cleave off the unique type A and B sugars on the surface of red blood cells. This could allow the conversion of all donated blood to type O, greatly increasing the blood bank supply, but more testing is needed to develop the process.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Rahfeld P, Sim L, Moon H, Constantinescu I, Morgan-Lang C, Hallam SJ, Kizhakkedathu JN, Withers SG. 2019. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-019-0469-7" target="_blank" rel="noopener">An enzymatic pathway in the human gut microbiome that converts A to universal O type blood</a>. Nat Microbiol 4:1475–1485.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01827-x" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Interesting new protist has novel swimming stroke</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190611081905.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Quantum dot-microbe hybrids power conversion of carbon dioxide to useful stuff</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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395: Many Microbiome Mindsets
<p>This episode: Five different ways of thinking about our relationship with our microbes!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF395.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (20.4 MB, 29.8 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20537670" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Tuhoko rubulavirus 3</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190605150700.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> The microbiome by itself is an amazingly complicated community of many different species, with different lifestyles and metabolisms, all living together in competition and cooperation. On top of that, interactions between the microbiome and our body and our lifestyle multiply the complexity even more.<br /> <br /> This article explores five different views of the microbiome and how it fits into our body (or how the body fits in with the microbiome). From the organ view to the ecosystem view, each is a different way of looking at the different functions, dynamic patterns, and integration of the microbiome in its host, and each provides guidance for how to approach treatment of disease and maintenance of health.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Morar N, Bohannan BJM. 2019. <a href= "https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/703582" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">The Conceptual Ecology of the Human Microbiome</a>. The Quarterly Review of Biology 94:149–175.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://elifesciences.org/articles/42866" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">New resource connecting drugs, foods, and microbiota enzymes for potential interactions</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/116/24/11587.short" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Building cancer-killing viruses that are controlled with light</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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394: Skinny Cell Structure Supports
<p>This episode: Not as simple as it sounds—how rod-shaped bacteria maintain their shape!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Dr. Ethan Garner for his contribution!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF394.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.3 MB, 9.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165370/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Erwinia</em> virus M7</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/05/190520165015.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Microbes seem like they should be a lot simpler than large multicellular organisms, but even what seems like it should be a simple system in microbes can be surprisingly complex. In this case, the system bacteria maintaining their particular cell shape.<br /> <br /> Spherical cells have it easier: just add more cell material at every point. But for rods, they must make the cell longer without making it wider. How do they accomplish this? Two groups of proteins work together to help rod-shaped species grow, but how they work wasn't specifically known.<br /> <br /> In this study, it was found that one group of proteins adds more cell material as it moves around the circumference, while the other adds structure to the cell that allows it to maintain shape. The more of these structural proteins present, the thinner the cell can stay.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Dion MF, Kapoor M, Sun Y, Wilson S, Ryan J, Vigouroux A, van Teeffelen S, Oldenbourg R, Garner EC. 2019. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-019-0439-0" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Bacillus subtilis</em> cell diameter is determined by the opposing actions of two distinct cell wall synthetic systems</a>. Nat Microbiol 4:1294–1305.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-06-enzymes-giant-ocean-viruses.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Giant viruses have genes encoding interesting chemical-metabolizing enzymes</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-06-deceptively-simple-minute-marine-animals.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Tiny marine animal with two intriguing bacterial symbionts</a></li> </ul> <a href="https://blog.feedspot.com/microbiology_podcasts/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Check out BacterioFiles featured in Top 10 Microbiology Podcasts</a><br /> <br /> Post questions or comments here or email to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles@gmail.com</a>. Thanks for listening! <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p> </div>
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393: Prokaryote Partner Prevents Pathogen Potency
<p>This episode: Bacterial symbionts of amoebas help them survive bacterial infection, and prevent pathogens from spreading to others as much!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF393.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.5 MB, 8.1 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://ijs.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-26-2-238" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Eubacterium dolichum</a></em><br /> <br /> <a href="https://phys.org/news/2019-05-symbionts-lifesavers.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Amoebas are free-living, single-celled organisms, but they have some things in common with some cells of our immune system (macrophages). For example, certain bacterial pathogens can infect both in similar ways. So it can be useful to study the interactions of amoebas and bacteria to learn about our own immune defenses.<br /> <br /> In this study, the amoeba <em>Acanthamoeba castellanii</em> has another bacterial symbiont that helps it resist killing by the bacterial pathogen <em>Legionella pneumophila</em>. Once the amoebas recovered from the infection, they were more resistant to future challenges. Even better, the symbiont prevented the pathogen from transforming into a more spreadable form like it does when infecting amoebas alone.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> König L, Wentrup C, Schulz F, Wascher F, Escola S, Swanson MS, Buchrieser C, Horn M. 2019. <a href= "https://mbio.asm.org/content/10/3/e00333-19" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Symbiont-Mediated Defense against <em>Legionella pneumophila</em> in Amoebae</a>. mBio 10:e00333-19.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/05/190530160647.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RNA-cutting CRISPR/Cas system induces bacterial dormancy to prevent phage replication</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1291-3" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Gut bacteria degrade/modify many different kinds of drugs</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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392: Magnetic Microbes Maneuver Marine Manager
<p>This episode: A marine protist can orient itself along magnetic fields thanks to bacterial symbionts on its surface that make magnetic nanoparticles!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF392.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.2 MB, 7.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Chlorocebus pygerythrus</em> polyomavirus 3<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Various kinds of bacteria can orient their movement along a magnetic field. These are called magnetotactic, and they use this ability to swim toward or away from the surface of their aquatic habitat, to adjust their oxygen exposure according to their preference.<br /> <br /> No eukaryotic microbes have yet been discovered that can sense and react to magnetic fields like these prokaryotes. In this study, however, a protist was discovered that can do it via its partnership with ectosymbionts, or bacteria attached to its surface, that sense magnetism and orient their host's movement. In return, factors of the host's metabolism may feed its symbionts.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Monteil CL, Vallenet D, Menguy N, Benzerara K, Barbe V, Fouteau S, Cruaud C, Floriani M, Viollier E, Adryanczyk G, Leonhardt N, Faivre D, Pignol D, López-García P, Weld RJ, Lefevre CT. 2019. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-019-0432-7" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ectosymbiotic bacteria at the origin of magnetoreception in a marine protist</a>. Nat Microbiol 4:1088–1095.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-05-transgenic-fungus-rapidly-malaria-mosquitoes.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Fungus infects mosquitoes and quickly kills them with engineered toxin</a></li> <li><a href= "https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-019-0691-9" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Nose microbe helps mediate immune response to flu virus, in mouse study</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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391: Slime Stores Sodium Sensibility
<p>This episode: Slime molds can learn to get used to salt and hold on to that memory even after a period of dormancy!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF391.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.9 MB, 9.7 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Nocardia transvalensis</em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-04-slime-mold-absorbs-substances.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Slime mold <em>Physarum polycephalum</em> has many surprisingly intelligent abilities, despite being only a single cell. Studying how these abilities work in the cell can teach us new ways that life can do things. The ability of interest here is habituation, or learning not to avoid a chemical that seems unpleasant to the cell but is not necessarily harmful, especially with a food reward.<br /> <br /> The slime mold can become habituated to salt, in this case, learning to tolerate it enough to pass through a gradient of increasing concentration to get to some food as quickly as it crosses the same distance with no salt present. The scientists here learned that the cell takes up sodium into itself as it habituates, and holds onto both sodium and its memory through a period of hibernation.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Boussard A., Delescluse J., Pérez-Escudero A., Dussutour A. 2019. <a href= "https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.0368" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Memory inception and preservation in slime moulds: the quest for a common mechanism</a>. Phil Trans R Soc B 374:20180368.</p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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390: Friendly Phages Find Foes
<p>This episode: Bacteria carry deadly phages and use them against rival strains!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF390.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (9.4 MB, 10.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Bifidobacterium bifidum</em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-04-bacteria-harness-viruses-distinguish-friend.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Bacteria such as <em>Escherichia coli</em> live in environments such as the gut with many other types of microbes, and often develop communities of microbes cooperating and/or competing with each other for resources. But in order to cooperate or compete, bacteria must first be able to identify and discriminate between themselves and others. Sometimes microbes do this by exchanging membrane molecules, or secreting chemical signals that only partners can detect, or transferring plasmids or producing antimicrobial compounds that kill competitors.<br /> <br /> In the current study, scientists discovered a strain of <em>E. coli</em> that carries around phages that help them distinguish other strains and compete with them. When this strain encounters another, the phages it carries attack and destroy cells of the other strain, while leaving the carrier strain mostly unharmed. This strategy is not without cost, though; the viral proteins take resources to produce, and when there's no competing strains around, the virus can attack its carrier to some extent.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Song S, Guo Y, Kim J-S, Wang X, Wood TK. 2019. <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/abstract/S2211-1247(19)30400-0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Phages Mediate Bacterial Self-Recognition.</a> Cell Reports 27:737-749.e4.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-05-bacteria-behavior-tackle-tiny-obstacle.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>E. coli</em> adjusts its swimming to get around obstacles</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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389: Prokaryotes Pacify Protein Problem
<p>This episode: Engineered bacteria could help people digest an essential nutrient when they can't digest it themselves!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF389.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.5 MB, 9.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kadipiro_virus" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Kadipiro virus</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/fulltext/S1931-3128(19)30167-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a> (paywall)<br /> <br /> <a href= "https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/have-researchers-developed-a-potential-microbial-miracle-for-phenylketonuria-patients/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science-Based Medicine blog article about phenylketonuria, Synlogic, and engineering bacteria to treat this disorder, with lots of good detail</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Treating genetic disorders can be very difficult. Sometimes they can be managed, with lifestyle, diet, or medication, but cure has almost always been out of the picture. With a disorder such as phenylketonuria (PKU), for example, in which the body is unable to fully metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, diet and medication may work to some extent.<br /> <br /> In an effort to provide better options for PKU, scientists at Synlogic, Inc have created a strain of <em>Escherichia coli</em> that produces phenylalanine-degrading enzymes in the gut. The hope is that ingesting this bacterium could allow PKU patients to be less restrictive with their diet.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Isabella VM, Ha BN, Castillo MJ, Lubkowicz DJ, Rowe SE, Millet YA, Anderson CL, Li N, Fisher AB, West KA, Reeder PJ, Momin MM, Bergeron CG, Guilmain SE, Miller PF, Kurtz CB, Falb D. 2018. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt.4222" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Development of a synthetic live bacterial therapeutic for the human metabolic disease phenylketonuria</a>. Nat Biotechnol 36:857–864.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/05/190514081740.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Probiotic molecule induces protection in mice against viral brain infection</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-05-genes-coli-bacteria-genome.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>E. coli</em> growing with artificially synthesized genome</a> <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01584-x" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">(Extra information)</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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388: Floor Fungi Fracture Phthalates
<p>This episode: Microbes in household dust help degrade potentially harmful plasticizer chemicals!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Ashleigh Bope for her contribution!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF388.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.7 MB, 7.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Rosa rugosa</em> leaf distortion virus<br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/04/190410112738.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Modern life and technology comes with modern challenges, including exposure to chemicals in building materials and such that humans didn't encounter much before the last few generations. Phthalate esters, found in PVC and other materials, can accumulate in homes and cause some problems, especially in children.<br /> <br /> Modern life is also new to microbes, but they are very adaptable and versatile. In this study, microbes in household dust show some ability to break down the phthalates over time. Whether this activity is significant and beneficial to residents remains to be discovered.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Bope A, Haines SR, Hegarty B, Weschler CJ, Peccia J, Dannemiller KC. <a href= "https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/em/c9em00050j" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Degradation of phthalate esters in floor dust at elevated relative humidity</a>. Environ Sci: Processes Impacts.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/116/19/9178.short" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Native fungi tag team to kill invasive insect pest</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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387: Carbonate Creators Combat Cracking
<p>This episode: Bacteria strengthen concrete while helping to prevent damage from road salts!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF387.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.8 MB, 7.4 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Azospirillum_brasilense" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Azospirillum brasilense</a></em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/04/190409135831.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Winter is a bad time for concrete outside. Water seeps into cracks and freezes, causing bigger cracks that widen into potholes. Even the road salts used to keep water from freezing can react with compounds in the cement to break down the structure of the concrete.<br /> <br /> This study looks to bacteria for a solution for protecting concrete from these reactions. <em>Sporosarcina pasteurii</em>, given the right nutrients, can take the harmful salt compounds and turn them into minerals that strengthen the concrete instead of weakening it.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Ksara M, Newkirk R, Langroodi SK, Althoey F, Sales CM, Schauer CL, Farnam Y. 2019. <a href= "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061818324334" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Microbial damage mitigation strategy in cementitious materials exposed to calcium chloride</a>. Construction and Building Materials 195:1–9.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/04/190423133517.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Developing way for bacteria to make mother-of-pearl, a tough and useful material</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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386: Cupola Contaminant Cleaners
<p>This episode: Bacteria help gently clean residue off artworks painted on stone!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF386.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.6 MB, 6.1 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Cellulophaga</em> virus Cba171<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> More and more cleaning products these days contain an ingredient called "enzymes." These are proteins that break down contaminants biologically instead of just removing them chemically, in a targeted manner.<br /> <br /> In a similar approach, this study explores applying bacteria directly to classic artwork painted directly on stone, to clean up residues on the surface. These bacteria can produce enzymes on site and degrade the contaminants while leaving the underlying paint intact.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Ranalli G, Zanardini E, Rampazzi L, Corti C, Andreotti A, Colombini MP, Bosch‐Roig P, Lustrato G, Giantomassi C, Zari D, Virilli P. 2019. <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jam.14275" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Onsite advanced biocleaning system on historical wall paintings using new agar-gauze bacteria gel</a>. J Appl Microbiol 126:1785–1796.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/116/17/8544.short" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mouth bacteria prevent gum disease by interfering with activity of other bacteria</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/04/190423133557.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Despite identical genetics, individual bacteria can behave differently through random variation</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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385: Prokaryotes Protect Paper
<p>This episode: Bacteria produce antifungal compounds that can protect paper from fungal deterioration!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF385.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.8 MB, 7.4 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Acetobacter aceti</em><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Paper is a very useful information storage medium, but it is also somewhat delicious for microbes that can break it down as food, degrade the quality, and cause indelible stains and discoloration under the right conditions. Preventing this usually requires careful control, such as keeping humidity low, for storing paper for long periods.<br /> <br /> In this study, scientists tested the ability of the bacterium <em>Lysobacter enzymogenes</em> to protect paper via the antifungal compounds it produces. This first required filtering out the pigments that the bacteria produced, to prevent them from discoloring the paper. Once a method for this filtering was in place, they found the bacterial culture supernatant could significantly reduce fungal growth on various kinds of paper, and protect the paper from staining and degradation.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Chen Z, Zou J, Chen B, Du L, Wang M. 2019. <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jam.14265" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Protecting books from mold damage by decreasing paper bioreceptivity to fungal attack using de-coloured cell-free supernatant of <em>Lysobacter enzymogenes</em> C3</a>. J Appl Microbiol 126:1772–1784.</p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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384: Moss Materials Modify Microbiota
<p>This episode: Contact with soil materials and moss causes significant, though short-term, changes in the skin microbiota!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Dr. Mira Grönroos for her contribution!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF384.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.1 MB, 7.75 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Leonurus</em> mosaic virus<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Exposure to microbes throughout life is thought to help calibrate the immune system to some extent, reducing the risk of allergies and asthma without losing defense against pathogens. In this study, rubbing soil or packets of moss on the skin changed the composition of the skin microbiota temporarily, so this may be a way to help with this important type of exposure, but it is not yet known how to achieve optimal long-term effects.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Grönroos M, Parajuli A, Laitinen OH, Roslund MI, Vari HK, Hyöty H, Puhakka R, Sinkkonen A. 2019. <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mbo3.645" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Short-term direct contact with soil and plant materials leads to an immediate increase in diversity of skin microbiota</a>. MicrobiologyOpen 8:e00645.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jobm.201800656" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Cadmium-resistant microbes can help plants take up more cadmium to clean up soil</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/116/16/7982.short" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Plant symbionts acquired genes that turned them into insect pathogens</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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383: Communities Carry Communicable Communities
<p>I'm back! This episode: Looking at how people in different villages share microbes!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF383.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.5 MB, 7.0 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cristispira" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Cristispira pectinis</a></em><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Our microbiota, the communities of microbes living in and on our bodies, are incredibly diverse and varied. Each person's is different, and they can change drastically over time with changes in location, diet, lifestyle, and other factors.<br /> <br /> Learning how our microbiota forms and changes and functions is important, because it can affect many aspects of health. In this study, villagers in the islands of Fiji share microbes with others in the same and other villages, but not always in patterns that might be expected.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Brito IL, Gurry T, Zhao S, Huang K, Young SK, Shea TP, Naisilisili W, Jenkins AP, Jupiter SD, Gevers D, Alm EJ. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-019-0409-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Transmission of human-associated microbiota along family and social networks</a>. Nat Microbiol.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://elifesciences.org/articles/45343" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Figuring out how probiotic microbe protects gut against pathogens</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/mbo3.675" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Insect symbiont <em>Wolbachia</em> grown in sugar yeast cells</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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382: Small Scavengers Suck Sizable Cells
<p>This episode: Fungus-hunting amoebas have different strategies for detecting and preying on single-celled and filamentous fungi!<br /> <br /> Also, a personal note: I'm going to be taking a few weeks off the podcast to be able to take full advantage of spring, but I'll be back as soon as the weather gets too hot.</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF382.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.5 MB, 8.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Chondromyces catenulatus</em><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Amoebas in the microbial world are like powerful predators, going around gobbling up whatever they find that's small enough, by a process called phagocytosis, in which they surround their prey with their cell membrane and engulf it. It's similar to macrophages or white blood cells as part of our immune system in our bodies.<br /> <br /> The prey of amoebas includes bacteria, large viruses, and single-celled fungi called yeasts. In this study, scientists showed that some yeasts make great food sources for a certain kind of amoeba called <em>Protostelium aurantium</em>, while others either lack nutritional value or hide from the predators by covering up certain recognition molecules on their cell wall.<br /> <br /> They found that the amoebas could also consume the spores of filamentous fungi, and could even attack the filaments, or hyphae. In this latter case, instead of engulfing the large filaments, they pierced the cells and extracted their contents, an approach named ruphocytosis, from the Greek for suck or slurp.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Radosa S, Ferling I, Sprague JL, Westermann M, Hillmann F. <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1462-2920.14588" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The different morphologies of yeast and filamentous fungi trigger distinct killing and feeding mechanisms in a fungivorous amoeba</a>. Environ Microbiol.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/04/190404214756.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Finding potential antimicrobials from ant bacteria</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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381: Chlorophyll Can Convey Cancer Characteristics
<p>This episode: Pigmented bacteria can be used in a cancer imaging technique that combines light and sound!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF381.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.9 MB, 9.75 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Streptomyces bellus</em><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Because "cancer" is a general term that describes many different forms of disease affecting different cells in different parts of the body, effective cancer treatment relies on understanding the location and physiology of the cancer in a given patient. New imaging technologies for diagnosis and analysis of cancer and for cancer research can be very valuable, especially if they don't require big investments of money and space.<br /> <br /> One promising imaging technology is called multispectral optoacoustic imaging, or MSOT. This uses pulses of light to create vibrations as pigments in tissues absorb the light and undergo thermal expansion; these vibrations are then detected by ultrasound technology. This approach allows good resolution and depth of imaging without large equipment like MRI machines, but the best results require adding pigments into the body.<br /> <br /> In this study, scientists showed that the photosynthetic pigments of purple non-sulfur bacteria can be useful in this optoacoustic imaging, providing a somewhat long-term, nontoxic approach. It proved especially interesting when they discovered that the wavelength spectrum changing over time was an indication of macrophage activity in the tumors.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Peters L, Weidenfeld I, Klemm U, Loeschcke A, Weihmann R, Jaeger K-E, Drepper T, Ntziachristos V, Stiel AC. 2019. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09081-5" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Phototrophic purple bacteria as optoacoustic <em>in vivo</em> reporters of macrophage activity</a>. Nat Commun 10:1191.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-04-electricity-conducting-bacteria-yield-secret-tiny.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Figuring out the structure of bacterial nanowires</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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380: Plant Promoter Produces Polymer
<p>This episode: A microbe that boosts plant growth needs to make storage polymers for both itself and the plant's sake!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF380.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.1 MB, 7.75 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Suid gammaherpesvirus 3<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Bacteria that promote plant growth are fascinating and not too hard to find. Plants and microbes make good partners by each contributing something the other needs. Plants make sugars via photosynthesis that microbes can use as food, and microbes can gather nutrients that plants can't make, can drive off pathogens, and can contribute to plant growth in other ways.<br /> <br /> However, plants aren't making sugars all the time, because the sun goes down every day. So what do partner microbes do at these times? In this study, a beneficial microbe <em>Herbaspirillum seropedicae</em> was found to produce a storage compound called polyhydroxyalkanoate, or PHA, that it could use to store food for times of scarcity. Mutants of this microbe that could not make the storage compound weren't very beneficial for their plant partners.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Alves LPS, Amaral FP do, Kim D, Bom MT, Gavídia MP, Teixeira CS, Holthman F, Pedrosa F de O, Souza EM de, Chubatsu LS, Müller-Santos M, Stacey G. 2019. <a href= "https://aem.asm.org/content/85/6/e02586-18" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Importance of Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate Metabolism to the Ability of <em>Herbaspirillum seropedicae</em> To Promote Plant Growth</a>. Appl Environ Microbiol 85:e02586-18.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39602-7" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Probiotic could help prevent viral infection</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-03-starving-bacteria-eject-tails-energy.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Some bacteria can cut off their propellers when lacking food to power them</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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379: Photons Facilitate Faster Flourishing
<p>This episode: Light increases the growth even of some bacteria that don't harvest its energy!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF379.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (9.0 MB, 9.75 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Methylococcus thermophilus</em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/02/190227155811.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Light from the sun is one of the fundamental sources of energy for life on this planet. Plants and other phototrophs—photosynthetic organisms that get their energy mainly from light—form the foundation of the food web, and organisms that feed on them or that feed on organisms that feed on them are all dependent on the ability to capture the sun's rays.<br /> <br /> There are other ways to benefit directly from the sun's energy, besides photosynthesis—some microbes have enzymes that use light energy to repair damage to DNA (the same damage that is caused by ultraviolet light), and we use sunlight to synthesize vitamin D.<br /> <br /> In this study, however, microbes are discovered to grow faster in the presence of light despite not being phototrophs or producing any light-harvesting proteins. The scientists discover some possible light-sensing proteins, though, that could regulate these microbes' behavior, allowing them to synchronize their growth cycles to phototroph partners in aquatic environments.</p> <p><br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Maresca JA, Keffer JL, Hempel P, Polson SW, Shevchenko O, Bhavsar J, Powell D, Miller KJ, Singh A, Hahn MW. <a href= "https://jb.asm.org/content/early/2019/01/23/JB.00740-18" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Light modulates the physiology of non-phototrophic Actinobacteria</a>. J Bacteriol JB.00740-18.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/03/190305135259.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Finding and capturing electrosynthetic microbes directly from hot springs</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/03/190306171239.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Lignin-eating microbe could be good source for renewable aromatic compounds</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-03-common-beetle-gut-microbiome-benefits.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Wood-eating beetle has gut for breaking down wood in microbial production line fashion</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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378: Medusa Makes Marble Microbes
<p>This episode: Newly discovered giant virus from a hot spring turns its amoeba hosts to stone!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF378.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.7 MB, 7.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3497695/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Listeria</em> virus P70</a><br /> <em><br /></em> <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00591-2" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Viruses come in endless different shapes, sizes, and genetic configurations. Even within the group called giant viruses there is a large amount of variety. Many of their genes are unknown, without homology to any other sequences we have acquired in other areas of life. There is great potential to learn interesting things from these viruses.<br /> <br /> In this study, a new giant virus is discovered. Like many others, this infects amoebas, and causes them to transform from dynamic, shape-shifting cells into hard little cyst-like circles. This ability gave it the name Medusavirus. It's the first giant virus found in a relatively hot environment (a hot spring), and among other interesting features, it shows signs of multiple instances of gene transfer to and from its amoeba host.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Yoshikawa G, Blanc-Mathieu R, Song C, Kayama Y, Mochizuki T, Murata K, Ogata H, Takemura M. 2019. <a href= "https://jvi.asm.org/content/early/2019/02/04/JVI.02130-18" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Medusavirus, a novel large DNA virus discovered from hot spring water</a>. J Virol JVI.02130-18.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-03-bacteria-frog-skin-fungal-infections.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria on frog skin have antifungal potential</a></li> <li><a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jam.14241" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Phages could enhance effectiveness of antibiotics against pathogen biofilms</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/03/190304121500.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Cement-generating bacteria could make coal ash easier to store safely</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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377: Distributed Defense-Defeating Devices
<p>This episode: Newly discovered CRISPR-inhibiting genes are found in many different bacterial groups!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF377.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.0 MB, 8.8 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Borrelia mazzottii</em><br /> <em><br /></em> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/02/190205144338.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> The discovery of the microbial immune system, CRISPR-Cas, changed many things about the way we think of microbial ecology and interactions with microbe-infecting viruses. The CRISPR-Cas system can learn to detect new threats by capturing bits of their genetic sequences and using these to target the Cas proteins to chop up any such sequences that make it into the cytoplasm. This can greatly increase microbial survival in certain ecosystems in which viruses regularly kill a large percentage of the microbial population.<br /> <br /> To overcome this defense, a virus has to adapt, either by acquiring mutations that change its sequence, thus escaping detection, or by acquiring anti-CRISPR proteins that shut down the microbial defense directly. These possibilities make the complex ecology even more interesting.<br /> <br /> In this study, scientists develop a clever method for screening for new anti-CRISPR genes, and go searching for them in samples from various places (soil, animal guts, human gut). They find several new examples, which turn out to be found in many different kinds of species in many different environments.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Uribe RV, Helm E van der, Misiakou M-A, Lee S-W, Kol S, Sommer MOA. 2019. <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/abstract/S1931-3128(19)30040-X" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Discovery and Characterization of Cas9 Inhibitors Disseminated across Seven Bacterial Phyla</a>. Cell Host & Microbe 25:233-241.e5.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mmi.14231" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Figuring out how phages gain new hosts</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/02/190227131838.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Yeast cells modified to produce cheap medical cannabinoids</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-02-species-golden-death-bacterium-digests.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Type of bacteria that digest parasitic roundworms from inside out</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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376: Pressurized Pollutant Pulls Products
<p>This episode: Supercritical carbon dioxide and bacteria that can grow in it make a great combination for biofuel production!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF376.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (9.4 MB, 10.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Flexibacter aggregans</em><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Biofuels are an important part of humanity's move away from non-renewable resources. They have a higher energy density than batteries are yet able to achieve, giving them significant advantages for transportation purposes in which tapping into an electric grid isn't possible. Depending on the biofuel, they also have the advantage of existing infrastructure: we don't need to build a whole new system of charging or refueling stations, but can use the systems already in place.<br /> <br /> However, biofuels as a collection of technologies still need some refinements. Yields for the more potentially sustainable approaches are low, and the lower the concentration of a soluble fuel, the more difficult it is to separate it from the non-fuel components of a fermentation. Microbial products also face the risk of contamination of a fermentation by unwanted organisms that use up the substrate without producing desirable products.<br /> <br /> In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide is considered as a fix for both of these problems. The gas is pressurized to a point at which it is indistinguishable from liquid. A strain of <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> is specially selected as capable of growing and fermenting in this environment, while contaminants are inhibited. The solvent potential of supercritical carbon dioxide also serves as a way to extract the biofuel product—in this case, isobutanol—from the aqueous part of the culture medium. While it needs some development, this approach yields promising results.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Boock JT, Freedman AJE, Tompsett GA, Muse SK, Allen AJ, Jackson LA, Castro-Dominguez B, Timko MT, Prather KLJ, Thompson JR. 2019. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-08486-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Engineered microbial biofuel production and recovery under supercritical carbon dioxide</a>. Nat Commun 10:587.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/02/190221141459.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Yeast adopted useful iron-capturing bacterial protein</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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375: Prepared Pathogen Preserves Perception
<p>This episode: A cancer-killing virus could help increase success of treatment of a form of eye cancer in children!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF375.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (8.0 MB, 8.7 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimivirus" target="_blank" rel= "noopener"><em>Acanthamoeba polyphaga</em> mimivirus</a><br /> <br /> <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00273-z" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Cancer obviously is a serious concern, and can be tricky to treat because there are endless varieties in all different places in the body, each of which can have its own expected progression, aggressiveness, and methods of treatment to take into account.<br /> <br /> Even more serious is when the cancer is in very young children, as is often the case with a cancer of the eye called retinoblastoma. There are about 8000 cases of this disease per year, and when treatment is unsuccessful, it can lead to the loss of one or both eyes.<br /> <br /> In this study, investigators looked into using a cancer-targeting, oncolytic virus to complement the normal treatment of chemotherapy. The virus for the most part remained localized to the eye where it should be, and targeted the cancer instead of healthy cells, and so seems promising. In the small trial with two patients included in this study, the virus didn't cause a complete recovery, but showed some modest promising results.<br /> <br /> <strong>Journal Paper:</strong><br /> Pascual-Pasto G, Bazan-Peregrino M, Olaciregui NG, Restrepo-Perdomo CA, Mato-Berciano A, Ottaviani D, Weber K, Correa G, Paco S, Vila-Ubach M, Cuadrado-Vilanova M, Castillo-Ecija H, Botteri G, Garcia-Gerique L, Moreno-Gilabert H, Gimenez-Alejandre M, Alonso-Lopez P, Farrera-Sal M, Torres-Manjon S, Ramos-Lozano D, Moreno R, Aerts I, Doz F, Cassoux N, Chapeaublanc E, Torrebadell M, Roldan M, König A, Suñol M, Claverol J, Lavarino C, De TC, Fu L, Radvanyi F, Munier FL, Catalá-Mora J, Mora J, Alemany R, Cascalló M, Chantada GL, Carcaboso AM. 2019. <a href= "http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/11/476/eaat9321" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Therapeutic targeting of the RB1 pathway in retinoblastoma with the oncolytic adenovirus VCN-01</a>. Sci Transl Med 11:eaat9321.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/02/190201130624.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Exploring how microbes can influence the flavor of coffee</a></li> </ul> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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374: Microbes Muzzle Malicious Metal
<p>This episode: Mouse gut microbes, from mice or from human donors, can protect mice against arsenic toxicity!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF374.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.3 MB, 6.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptomyces_griseus" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Streptomyces griseus</a></em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190104121429.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Our gut microbes benefit us in many ways, including nutritionally—by producing vitamins and helping to digest food—and by helping us in defense against pathogens and other immunological threats.<br /> <br /> Many things we do can affect our gut microbes too, positively or negatively. What we eat, toxins we encounter, and other aspects of lifestyle can damage our microbial communities.<br /> <br /> In this study, we see that the reverse could be true, that gut microbes, and specifically one called <em>Faecalibacterium prausnitzii</em>, can protect their host against toxins such as arsenic.<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Coryell M, McAlpine M, Pinkham NV, McDermott TR, Walk ST. 2018. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-07803-9" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The gut microbiome is required for full protection against acute arsenic toxicity in mouse models</a>. Nat Commun 9:5424.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href="https://aem.asm.org/content/85/3/e02042-18" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Using bacteria to remediate rust on iron</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-01-whopping-big-viruses-prey-human.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">New large viruses discovered infecting bacteria in human gut</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.epicgardening.com/podcast" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Cool podcast about gardening that often mentions microbes</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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373: Plant Pilots Prevent Parching
<p>This episode: Beneficial fungi found inside wild grain plants help wheat plants grow better with less water!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF373.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.1 MB, 7.75 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://jb.asm.org/content/192/17/4532" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Beijerinckia indica</a></em><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> As we have microbial communities in our guts, on our skin, and in various other places in and on our bodies, plants also have beneficial microbial symbionts around their roots, on their leaf surfaces, and even inside their tissues. These microbes can be bacteria, fungi, or other, and can help plants gather nutrients, resist diseases or pests, and other things.<br /> <br /> In this study, some fungi living in grain plants—called endophytes, or "inside plants"—can help wheat tolerate drought and grow better with less water. Studying this system could lead to breakthroughs in wheat farming, all thanks to microbes.<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Llorens E, Sharon O, Camañes G, García‐Agustín P, Sharon A. <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1462-2920.14530" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Endophytes from wild cereals protect wheat plants from drought by alteration of physiological responses of the plants to water stress</a>. Environ Microbiol.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2019-01-soil-bacteria-mosquito-repelling-chemical.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Searching bacterial metabolites for new insect repellants</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190116155543.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Antibiotic disruption of gut microbes can also mess with skeletal health</a></li> <li><a href= "http://msphere.asm.org/cgi/content/short/4/1/e00554-18" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Fibers derived from wood could encourage healthy gut microbes</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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372: Roundworm Riders Repel Raiders
<p>This episode: Bacteria that help nematodes prey on insects also help keep fungi from stealing their kills!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF372.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.4 MB, 8.1 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Artogeia rapae</em> granulovirus<br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Soil is an incredibly complex ecosystem, with many different interactions constantly happening between plants, insects, bacteria, fungi, and other organisms, not to mention a large variety of shifting environmental conditions. All of these are competing with some and cooperating with others to try to survive and thrive the best they can.<br /> <br /> One interesting interaction takes place between small roundworms in the soil, called nematodes, and bacteria they carry around that cause disease in insects. These nematodes prey on insects by injecting the bacteria into them, which kill and start digesting the insects. The nematodes then feed on the insects and the bacteria until the resources have been exhausted, and then move on to the next insect, taking some bacteria with them again.<br /> <br /> In this study, the scientists wondered how these partners deal with competitors in the soil that might want to take advantage of their resources. They discover that the bacteria produce compounds that can repel and inhibit fungi that might otherwise steal their kills.<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Shan S, Wang W, Song C, Wang M, Sun B, Li Y, Fu Y, Gu X, Ruan W, Rasmann S. <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1751-7915.13365" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The symbiotic bacteria <em>Alcaligenes faecalis</em> of the entomopathogenic nematodes <em>Oscheius</em> spp. exhibit potential biocontrol of plant- and entomopathogenic fungi</a>. Microb Biotechnol.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190114113523.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mice given gut microbes from healthy human babies don't get milk allergies</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190115121103.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">New fungal species living in glaciers are losing their homes as glaciers disappear</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190115200032.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toxins from cyanobacterial blooms can product tiny animals from pathogens</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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371: Cell Stalker Senses Signals
<p>This episode: Phages eavesdrop on bacterial communications to attack at the perfect moment!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Justin Silpe and Dr. Bonnie Bassler for their contributions!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF371.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (11.1 MB, 12.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Artichoke Aegean ringspot virus<br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/12/181213142206.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Even organisms as small as bacteria can, and often do, communicate with each other through a process called quorum sensing, in which each cell releases a small amount of a certain chemical into their surroundings. When the population is large enough that the concentration of this chemical builds up to a certain level, the cells in the population change their behavior. The specifics of this change depend on the species and the situation.<br /> <br /> But since this chemical signal is released into the environment, anything around that can sense it can listen in on the communications of a bacterial population. In this study, Justin Silpe and Dr. Bonnie Bassler find a type of virus that uses such a chemical communication as a signal to come out of stasis and hijack a whole population of bacteria at once!<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Silpe JE, Bassler BL. 2019. <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(18)31458-2" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">A Host-Produced Quorum-Sensing Autoinducer Controls a Phage Lysis-Lysogeny Decision</a>. Cell 176:268-280.E13.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-018-0615-0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria around plant roots can affect when they flower</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190109170644.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Certain respiratory microbe communities seem to protect against flu</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190111143740.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">New process for finding better electric bacteria</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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370: Magnets Make Messenger More Moveable
<p>This episode: Enhancing a virus with magnetic nanoparticles and CRISPR-Cas gene editing abilities makes it a good vector for genetic therapies!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF370.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (11.2 MB, 12.25 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://academic.oup.com/femsle/article/347/1/52/532012" target= "_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Staphylococcus</em> virus S253</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181113110359.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Gene delivery, getting genetic content for gene therapy to the correct tissues in an organism, has long been a very tricky problem. And genetic modification, making specific changes at a specific place in a genome, is also difficult.<br /> <br /> Viruses can help with both delivery and modification, but they're often not specific and targeted enough to be effective, or even safe. Off-target effects could be harmful or even deadly, potentially resulting in cancer.<br /> <br /> In this study, a virus is modified with nanotechnology in the form of tiny magnets to allow humans to target it to specific tissues, and given the ability to modify specific genes using the bacterial CRISPR-Cas system. These modifications potentially make this gene delivery system much more safe and effective.<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Zhu H, Zhang L, Tong S, Lee CM, Deshmukh H, Bao G. 2018. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41551-018-0318-7" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Spatial control of in vivo CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing via nanomagnets</a>. Nat Biomed Eng.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11274-018-2574-9" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria found in hot, dry areas could have potentially useful industrial enzymes</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/12/181218123123.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Gut bacteria help regulate vitamin A activity in gut</a></li> <li><a href="http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/12/eaau0125" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Confined swimming bacteria form shifting vortex like clothes washer</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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369: Powering Purple Prokaryote Protonation
<p>This episode: Purple phototrophic bacteria could use certain kinds of wastewater, along with electric current, to produce valuable products like hydrogen without much waste!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Dr. Ioanna Vasiliadou for her contribution!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF369.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (12.7 MB, 13.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptomyces_tendae" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Streptomyces tendae</a></em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181113080903.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Purple phototrophic bacteria can take light energy and use it to help power their metabolism. They're not dependent on it like plants, but can use light or other energy sources for their versatile metabolism.<br /> <br /> This versatility makes them very interesting candidates for industrial biotechnology applications. These bacteria can take in various combinations of nutrients and produce a number of different valuable products, including protein-rich feed, bioplastics, and biofuels such as hydrogen gas.<br /> <br /> Today's study shows they can also take up electrons directly to help make their biofuel production process even more environmentally sustainable.<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Vasiliadou IA, Berná A, Manchon C, Melero JA, Martinez F, Esteve-Nuñez A, Puyol D. 2018. <a href= "https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenrg.2018.00107/full" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Biological and Bioelectrochemical Systems for Hydrogen Production and Carbon Fixation Using Purple Phototrophic Bacteria</a>. Front Energy Res 6:107.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-12-microorganisms-colonize-degrade-year-old.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Looking at which microbes degrade classic paintings, and how</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-018-0307-3" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Neurotransmitter-consuming gut microbes correlated with fewer signs of depression</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-018-0598-x" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Phages don't always transfer the same way in fecal microbe transplants</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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368: Prokaryotes Promote Passing Parent Peculiarities
<p>This episode: Fruit fly gut microbes can mediate non-genetic traits passed from parents to offspring!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Dr. Per Stenberg for his contribution!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF368.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (10.0 MB, 10.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Bifidobacterium_breve" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bifidobacterium breve</a></em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-11-parents-guts-tales-children.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <strong>Takeaways</strong><br /> Heritability of traits is essential for evolution; if an ability can't be passed on from generation to generation, then natural selection can't act on it on a population-wide level.<br /> <br /> An organism's genome is the source of most heritable traits, as DNA gets passed on to offspring, but a number of other ways of passing on traits have been discovered, in the field of epigenetics.<br /> <br /> In this study, the gut microbes from fruit flies raised in one temperature could affect the gene expression of their offspring raised in a different temperature, compared to flies that had been kept at the latter temperature over both generations. While the effects on fly fitness or behavior are not yet known, these results suggest that gut microbes, transmitted from parents to offspring, could be another mechanism of heritability.<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Zare A, Johansson A-M, Karlsson E, Delhomme N, Stenberg P. 2018. <a href= "https://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/1873-3468.13278" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The gut microbiome participates in transgenerational inheritance of low-temperature responses in <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em></a>. FEBS Lett 592:4078–4086.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/lam.13102" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria living in alfalfa plants seem to extend roundworm lifespans</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-12-microbial-interactions.html" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Whole fruit fly microbe community affects whether flies live longer or reproduce more</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-12-microbe-membrane-survive-extreme-environments.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Hot spring archaea have unusual membranes that help tolerate the heat</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 367 - Migrating Modifies Microbiota
<p>This episode: Women who immigrated to the US from southeast Asia lost much of their gut microbiota diversity, resulting in a microbe community similar to the typical American!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF367.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (9.3 MB, 10.2 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Pseudomonas anguilliseptica</em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-11-immigration-person-microbiome.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Vangay P, Johnson AJ, Ward TL, Al-Ghalith GA, Shields-Cutler RR, Hillmann BM, Lucas SK, Beura LK, Thompson EA, Till LM, Batres R, Paw B, Pergament SL, Saenyakul P, Xiong M, Kim AD, Kim G, Masopust D, Martens EC, Angkurawaranon C, McGready R, Kashyap PC, Culhane-Pera KA, Knights D. 2018. <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(18)31382-5" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">US Immigration Westernizes the Human Gut Microbiome</a>. Cell 175:962-972.e10.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1462-2920.14486" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Soil archaea help plants resist pathogenic microbes</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181128082729.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Engineering bacteria to evolve more heat-stable proteins with unusual amino acids</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181128182146.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Anemones and clown fish live together and also share microbes</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 366 - Globules Get Garbage Gone
<p>This episode: Bacteria rid themselves of burdensome waste by ejecting it inside little pieces of their own cell, called minicells!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF366.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (10.8 MB, 11.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cacao_yellow_mosaic_virus" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Cacao yellow mosaic virus</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-09-life-threatening-garbage-bacteria-eject-trash.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> Journal Papers:<br /> Rang CU, Proenca A, Buetz C, Shi C, Chao L. 2018. <a href= "https://msphere.asm.org/content/3/5/e00428-18" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Minicells as a Damage Disposal Mechanism in <em>Escherichia coli</em></a>. mSphere 3:e00428-18.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href="https://msphere.asm.org/content/3/6/e00587-18" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Gut microbe can help protect mice from colon cancer</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181114144324.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Microbes living in super-dry desert couldn't survive excess rains</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 365 - Saccharomycopsis Cells Slay Sickeners
<p>This episode: Dr. Klara Junker joins me to discuss her work on the predatory yeast <em>Saccharomycopsis schoenii</em> that can kill the serious pathogenic yeast <em>Candida auris</em>!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF365.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (11.0 MB, 12.0 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Lambdapapillomavirus 5<br /> <br /> <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-33199-z#Sec7" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Movies of <em>Saccharomycopsis</em> attacking other yeasts</a><br /> <br /> Journal Papers:<br /> Junker K, Bravo Ruiz G, Lorenz A, Walker L, Gow NAR, Wendland J. 2018. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-33199-z">The mycoparasitic yeast <em>Saccharomycopsis schoenii</em> predates and kills multi-drug resistant <em>Candida auris</em></a>. Sci Rep 8:14959.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-10-tales-crypt-microbial-life-graveyards.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Studying which microbes grow well on different gravestones</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-11-beneficial-gut-bacteria-metabolize-fiber.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Certain fiber-digesting bacteria in mouse gut correlate with less artery disease</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 364 - Polyproteins Promote Producing Pabulum
<p>This episode: Engineering other organisms to fix nitrogen by combining the required enzyme components into giant proteins that then get cut into the regular-sized subunit components!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF364.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (10.5 MB, 11.5 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Blastochloris sulfoviridis</em><br /> <br /> <a href="http://www.pnas.org/content/115/36/8849.short" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Journal commentary (paywall)</a><br /> <br /> Journal Papers:<br /> Yang J, Xie X, Xiang N, Tian Z-X, Dixon R, Wang Y-P. 2018. <a href= "http://www.pnas.org/content/115/36/E8509" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Polyprotein strategy for stoichiometric assembly of nitrogen fixation components for synthetic biology</a>. Proc Natl Acad Sci 115:E8509–E8517.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181023110545.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How the human microbiota recovers after antibiotic treatment</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 363 - Tiny Treasure Tunnels
<p>This episode: Intricate networks of tunnels in garnet gemstones seem to have come from tunneling microorganisms!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Magnus Ivarsson for his contribution!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF363.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (5.4 MB, 5.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Streptomyces griseosporeus</em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180809112532.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> Journal Papers:<br /> Ivarsson M, Skogby H, Phichaikamjornwut B, Bengtson S, Siljeström S, Ounchanum P, Boonsoong A, Kruachanta M, Marone F, Belivanova V, Holmström S. 2018. <a href= "https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200351" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Intricate tunnels in garnets from soils and river sediments in Thailand – Possible endolithic microborings</a>. PLOS ONE 13:e0200351.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06921-0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Swimming algae can move through bloodstream to deliver drugs</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06580-9" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mosquito microbes engineered to inhibit spread of malaria</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181010135010.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A probiotic inhibits a pathogen by interfering with its signaling between cells</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181009115014.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Healthy microbiota seems important for mice recovering from heart attack</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 362 - Combining Chromosomes
<p>This episode: Combining all 16 of yeast's chromosomes into one or two only impairs their growth slightly in the lab, but it prevents them from successful mating with wild yeasts!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF362.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (12.4 MB, 13.6 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC314759/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Vibrio succinogenes</em></a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180801160017.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item 1</a>/<a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05857-9" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">News item 2</a><br /> <br /> Journal Papers:<br /> Luo J, Sun X, Cormack BP, Boeke JD. 2018. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0374-x" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Karyotype engineering by chromosome fusion leads to reproductive isolation in yeast</a>. Nature 560:392–396.<br /> Shao Y, Lu N, Wu Z, Cai C, Wang S, Zhang L-L, Zhou F, Xiao S, Liu L, Zeng X, Zheng H, Yang C, Zhao Z, Zhao G, Zhou J-Q, Xue X, Qin Z. 2018. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0382-x" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creating a functional single-chromosome yeast</a>. Nature 560:331–335.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "http://msystems.asm.org/cgi/content/short/3/5/e00119-18" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Treating <em>Salmonella</em> infection with phages plus gut microbiota works better together</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181002155253.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bioreactor fermentation strategy allows efficient vitamin K production</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 361 - Figuring Fungus's Forcing Fly Functions
<p>This episode: Bringing a fungus that makes zombie flies into the lab makes a good model for studying microbial mind-control!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Dr. Carolyn Elya for her contribution!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF361.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (12.1 MB, 13.25 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <span style= "font-family: 'times new roman' , serif;"><a href= "https://viralzone.expasy.org/569?outline=all_by_species" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Dipteran brevidensovirus 2</a></span><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180731151203.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> <a href="https://elifesciences.org/articles/34414/figures" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Videos of fly fungus infection progression</a><br /> <br /> Journal Papers:<br /> Elya C, Lok TC, Spencer QE, McCausland H, Martinez CC, Eisen M. 2018. <a href="https://elifesciences.org/articles/34414" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Robust manipulation of the behavior of <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em> by a fungal pathogen in the laboratory</a>. eLife 7:e34414.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jam.14117" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria from coal mining areas could help pollution-cleaning plants grow in those areas</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06911-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria in photosynthetic family found living deep inside rocks</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 360 - Fellow Phages Fight Fortifications
<p>This episode: Bacteriophages with defenses against bacterial CRISPR defenses have to work together to succeed!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Drs. Edze Westra and Stineke van Houte for their contributions, and to Calvin Cornell for suggesting this story!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF360.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (9.6 MB, 10.5 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <span style= "font-family: 'times new roman' , serif; font-size: 12pt;"><em>Lactobacillus casei</em> subsp. <em>alactosus</em></span><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180719142007.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item 1</a>/<a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-07-phages-suppress-crispr-bacterial-immunity.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item 2</a><br /> <br /> Journal Papers:<br /> Borges AL, Zhang JY, Rollins MF, Osuna BA, Wiedenheft B, Bondy-Denomy J. 2018. <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(18)30738-4" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteriophage Cooperation Suppresses CRISPR-Cas3 and Cas9 Immunity</a>. Cell 174:917-925.e10.<br /> <br /> Landsberger M, Gandon S, Meaden S, Rollie C, Chevallereau A, Chabas H, Buckling A, Westra ER, Houte S van. 2018. <a href= "https://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(18)30721-9" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Anti-CRISPR Phages Cooperate to Overcome CRISPR-Cas Immunity</a>. Cell 174:908-916.e12.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180927135145.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Aphids can see fluorescence from pathogenic bacteria to avoid them on leaves</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180926153223.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Fecal transplants from yourself before antibiotics could restore gut community after antibiotics</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06496-4" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Engineering <em>E. coli</em> to convert CO<sub>2</sub> and methanol into useful products</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181001101932.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Used panel of bioluminescent bacteria to test artificial sweetener toxicity</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 359 - Prokaryotes Provoke Perpendicular Punishment
<p>This episode: Some bacteria produce DNA-targeting toxins, which provokes a similar retaliation from other strains. Sometimes this hurts the provoker, but sometimes it is very helpful to them!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Dr. Despoina Mavridou for her contribution!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF359.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.9 MB, 8.4 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199240/" target= "_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Mycobacterium</em> virus Athena</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-07-bacteria-conquer-vanquish-enemies.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Gonzalez D, Sabnis A, Foster KR, Mavridou DAI. 2018. <a href= "http://www.pnas.org/content/115/29/7593" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Costs and benefits of provocation in bacterial warfare</a>. Proc Natl Acad Sci 115:7593–7598.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180919101016.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bacteria could help plants tolerate salt better</a></li> <li><a href= "https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-018-0555-8" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Galapagos vampire finch has unusual gut microbes</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180927105706.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Using engineered luminescent phages for rapid detection of bacteria</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 358 - elegans Endures Edifying Enterococcus
<p>This episode: Roundworms and not-too-irritating bacteria quickly evolve a beneficial relationship when under threat from other bacterial pathogens!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF358.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (7.5 MB, 8.1 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Siegesbeckia</em> yellow vein betasatellite<br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180529092137.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Rafaluk‐Mohr C, Ashby B, Dahan DA, King KC. 2018. <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/evl3.58" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Mutual fitness benefits arise during coevolution in a nematode-defensive microbe model</a>. Evol Lett 2:246–256.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href="https://aem.asm.org/content/84/18/e01186-18" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Phages can hide in bacterial spores and attack when the bacteria revive</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180831133203.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Probiotics seemed to increase risk in mice from gut parasite</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180906141640.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Studying the value of using probiotics before or after antibiotics</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-09-hundreds-electricity-generating-bacteria-pathogenic-probiotic.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">More microbes than realized, even in gut, may be able to generate electricity</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-09-magnetic-bacteria-unique-superpower.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Magnetotactic bacteria are really cool</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 357 - Colossal Contagion Codes Catabolism
<p>This episode: A new giant virus infecting marine algae brings its own genes related to fermentation, generating energy in the absence of oxygen!<br /> <br /> Thanks to Drs. Chris Schvarcz and Grieg Steward for their contributions!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF357.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (14 MB, 15.25 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em><a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borrelia_anserina" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Borrelia anserina</a></em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-05-giant-virus-oahu-hawaii.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Schvarcz CR, Steward GF. 2018. <a href= "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042682218300904" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A giant virus infecting green algae encodes key fermentation genes</a>. Virology 518:423–433.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180822112353.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Plant virus influences aphid nutrition and population growth</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-08-coli-bacterium-key-boosting-iron.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Hosts can benefit from <em>E. coli</em> iron-gathering proteins</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180823113618.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Fog can sustain and transport microbes long distances</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180824090616.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Using bacteriophages to form useful nanostructures out of gold</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 356 - Beams Boost Bolstered Bacteria
<p>This episode: Combining cells with light-absorbing nanomaterials can help tumor-targeting bacteria produce more anticancer compound!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF356.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (10.4 MB, 11.4 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Maruca vitrata</em> nucleopolyhedrovirus<br /> <br /> <a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.8b03758" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Here's a paper</a> I found that actually shows carbon dot nanomaterials enhancing bacterial nitrogen fixation<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Zheng D-W, Chen Y, Li Z-H, Xu L, Li C-X, Li B, Fan J-X, Cheng S-X, Zhang X-Z. 2018. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-03233-9" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Optically-controlled bacterial metabolite for cancer therapy</a>. Nat Commun 9:1680.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180815130536.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Viruses infect marine algae, which release shells into air and affect clouds</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 355 - Photon Factors Favor Fancy Fuels
<p>This episode: Engineering yeast to control their metabolism using light and dark for the production of advanced biofuels and chemicals!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF355.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (16.1 MB, 17.7 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equine_viral_arteritis" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Equine arteritis virus</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180322181338.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Zhao EM, Zhang Y, Mehl J, Park H, Lalwani MA, Toettcher JE, Avalos JL. 2018. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nature26141" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Optogenetic regulation of engineered cellular metabolism for microbial chemical production</a>. Nature 555:683–687.</p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 354 - Prokaryote Protection Promotes Protein Passing
<p>This episode: The bacterial immune system, CRISPR-Cas, can enhance gene transfer via transduction (phages carrying bacteria DNA) despite preventing it via conjugation!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF354.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (14.9 MB, 16.3 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trichodysplasia_spinulosa_polyomavirus" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Human polyomavirus 8</a><br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Watson BNJ, Staals RHJ, Fineran PC. 2018. <a href= "http://mbio.asm.org/content/9/1/e02406-17" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">CRISPR-Cas-Mediated Phage Resistance Enhances Horizontal Gene Transfer by Transduction</a>. mBio 9:e02406-17.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-08-wearable-microbrewery-human-body.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Using yeast in packets to measure exposure to radiation</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-08-light-engineered-bacterial-key-future-labs-on-a-chip.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Light-controlled swimming bacteria can be shaped into complex patterns</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05949-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Special bacteria could help people lacking an enzyme avoid food toxicity</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 353 - Pathogen Prevents Pathogen Pervasion
<p>This episode: Some bacteria that can cause pneumonia can prevent other bacteria from doing the same!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF353.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (9.6 MB, 10.5 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Bell pepper mottle virus<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Reddinger RM, Luke-Marshall NR, Sauberan SL, Hakansson AP, Campagnari AA. 2018. <a href= "http://mbio.asm.org/content/9/1/e02089-17" target="_blank" rel= "noopener"><em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> Modulates <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> Biofilm Dispersion and the Transition from Colonization to Invasive Disease</a>. mBio 9:e02089-17.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180807131748.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Trying to get plants and beneficial microbes to work together better</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180807144941.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Unusual strain of corn cultivates bacteria that fix nitrogen for it</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-08-world-fastest-creature-smallest.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Cool protozoan has super speedy body contraction</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 352 - Staphylococcus Stops Skin Swellings
<p>This episode: A harmless strain of bacteria on the skin produces a compound that can prevent tumors from forming!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF352.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (9.2 MB, 10 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Hamiltonella</em> virus APSE1<br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180301103701.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Nakatsuji T, Chen TH, Butcher AM, Trzoss LL, Nam S-J, Shirakawa KT, Zhou W, Oh J, Otto M, Fenical W, Gallo RL. 2018. <a href= "http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/2/eaao4502" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">A commensal strain of <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> protects against skin neoplasia</a>. Sci Adv 4:eaao4502.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180803134654.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Eating crickets could be good for your gut microbes</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180806095213.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Even probiotic bacteria could cause problems if they overgrow</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 351 - Tupanvirus Transports Translation Tools
<p>This episode: New giant virus has genes for a surprisingly complete system of protein synthesis!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF351.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (10.1 MB, 11.1 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <a href= "http://jgv.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19005-0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Phocid alphaherpesvirus 1</a><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41467-018-03168-1/MediaObjects/41467_2018_3168_MOESM8_ESM.avi" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Video of tupanvirus intracellular factory</a><br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Abrahão J, Silva L, Silva LS, Khalil JYB, Rodrigues R, Arantes T, Assis F, Boratto P, Andrade M, Kroon EG, Ribeiro B, Bergier I, Seligmann H, Ghigo E, Colson P, Levasseur A, Kroemer G, Raoult D, La Scola B. 2018. <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-03168-1" target= "_blank" rel="noopener">Tailed giant Tupanvirus possesses the most complete translational apparatus of the known virosphere</a>. Nat Commun 9:749.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-29744-5" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Gut microbes can help with the healthy effects of berries</a> (paper)</li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180726162736.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Leaf microbes can protect plants from pathogens, at least when plants aren't fertilized</a></li> <li><a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1462-2920.14312" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Exploring the microbes living on an 18th century mummy</a> (paper)</li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 350 - Microbes Mysteriously Make Methane
<p>This episode: A version of the microbial enzyme that fixes nitrogen can also convert carbon dioxide to methane!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF350.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (11.8 MB, 12.9 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Human mastadenovirus D<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Zheng Y, Harris DF, Yu Z, Fu Y, Poudel S, Ledbetter RN, Fixen KR, Yang Z-Y, Boyd ES, Lidstrom ME, Seefeldt LC, Harwood CS. 2018. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-017-0091-5">A pathway for biological methane production using bacterial iron-only nitrogenase</a>. Nat Microbiol 3:281–286.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180726162800.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Gut bacterial metabolite helps protect mice against gut pathogen</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 349 - Magnet Microbes Make Millivolts
<p>This episode: Bacteria that contain tiny magnets can generate an electric current!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF349.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6.8 MB, 7.4 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: Mamastrovirus 2<br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Smit B.A., Van Zyl E., Joubert J.J., Meyer W., Prévéral S., Lefèvre C.T., Venter S.N. 2018. <a href= "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/lam.12862">Magnetotactic bacteria used to generate electricity based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction</a>. Lett Appl Microbiol 66:362–367.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-07-bacteria-deep-sea-fish-evolution-symbiosis.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Deep-sea fangly fishes have tight relationship with their light-producing bacteria</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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BacterioFiles 348 - Huge Host Hackers Have Historic Histones
<p>This episode: Giant viruses produce DNA-packing proteins that seem to have branched off from eukaryotes far back in evolutionary history!</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href= "http://traffic.libsyn.com/bacteriofiles/BF348.mp3">Download Episode</a></span> (6 MB, 6.5 minutes)<br /> <br /> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Show notes:</span><br /> Microbe of the episode: <em>Caulobacter maris</em><br /> <br /> <a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180207102751.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">News item</a><br /> <br /> Journal Paper:<br /> Erives AJ. 2017. <a href= "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13072-017-0162-0" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">Phylogenetic analysis of the core histone doublet and DNA topo II genes of Marseilleviridae: evidence of proto-eukaryotic provenance</a>. Epigenetics & Chromatin 10:55.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other interesting stories:</span></p> <div style="margin-left: 2em;"> <div style="margin-left: 2em"> <ul> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180705114121.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Swimming bacteria can affect liquid viscosity, to the point of superfluidity</a></li> <li><a href= "https://phys.org/news/2018-07-nitric-oxide-roundworms-bad-bacteria.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Tiny soil roundworms can sense and avoid pathogens by their gases</a></li> <li><a href= "https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180718104754.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Beetle bacterium makes defensive compound with genes taken from an ocean microbe</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <p> </p> <p>Email questions or comments to <a href= "mailto:bacteriofiles@gmail.com">bacteriofiles at gmail dot com</a>. Thanks for listening!</p> <p>Subscribe: <a href= "https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bacteriofiles/id352470437">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href= "http://bacteriofiles.microbeworld.libsynpro.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS</a>, <a href= "https://goo.gl/app/playmusic?ibi=com.google.PlayMusic&isi=691797987&ius=googleplaymusic&link=https://play.google.com/music/m/Irqrgrp5uy5lwop5vby2ysjbu4y?t%3DBacterioFiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Play</a>. Support the show at <a href="https://www.patreon.com/bacteriofiles" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Patreon</a>, or check out the show at <a href= "http://twitter.com/BacterioFiles">Twitter</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/BacterioFiles/349532233141">Facebook</a></p>
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