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Description:

A history narrative that will be covering the stories of events and people that played a part in creating America. My goal is to give the listener an entertaining dialog of history and walk away (or ear away) with a, “I didn't know that”, feeling.

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Podcast Episode's:
110-Sir Ferdinando Gorges part three
<p>Gorges was trying to gain COMPLETE control of New England. His latest scheme was to relinquish the present patents desiring King Charles I to reissue a series of new charters, eight to be exact. Each to be given to eight of his patentees, hoping these would be not considered an illegal arrangement by parliament. Well, the Massachusetts colonists did not take kindly to this underhanded approach to take over their hard work and freedoms. Gorges lost his right hand man, John Mason and along with the troubles in England, he never quite secured the patents covering New England and his province called Maine.</p>
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109-Sir Ferdinando Gorges part two
<p>For a time we find Gorges defying the orders of Admiral Thomas Pennington to allow French sailors to board English ships and sail off to fight for the French in a war the English captains wanted no part of. He was able to keep his head but, with a civil conflict between Royalty and the Parliament breaking out in England, his enemies made their thoughts known against him. Finally with this encounter behind him, he proceeded to lay the ground work for his realm.</p>
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108-Sir Ferdinando Gorges
<p>There were many tied to the colonization efforts, I think none more than Captain John Smith and that of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. Through his patents acquired a substantial amount of North America land, even against the vocal discontent of the London Company. Gorges had the necessary royal pull on his side. England was not a quiet place, a war with Spain which would later involve France. Gorges helped where he could, mostly with his insight of what England must do to protect its sovereign lands, including the New World.</p>
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107-Christopher Levett
<p>Christopher Levett was determined to make his mark on New England. Finally gaining a patent for 6000 acres, he turned to his friends in Yorkshire but, they didn’t have the same burning ambition that Levett embodied. Finally sailing off in 1623 after exploring and meeting with New England’s neighbors, he put his stamp near Portland harbor, a place he named York. Within the year 1624, the settlement was gone. Politics back in England such as they were, Levett never made it back to his “York”. He was one of many that further lit a torch to the beauty, the possibilities and desires to plant a seed in America.</p>
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106-Plymouth Colony Continues On
<p>The Plymouth colony continues to grow and prosper. Bradford would on and off for the next several years act as their governor with others filling in as elected. What became the biggest problem was the paying down on the debt incurred by shipping supplies and people from Leyden. The beaver and otter skins trade was paying down money owed. It was the purchase of two ships, the Friendship and the White Angel that upset the adventurers or investors in England. The increase was above an acceptable level. Was Isaac Allerton acting as the agent in England delivering the goods ordered for the betterment of the colony or treating his voyages as a side business? James Sherley and William Bradford let the dealings concerning Allerton side too long. But in the end the crops were plentiful and able to sell off the excess to the outlying communities and the Indians. Life in Plymouth looked pretty good</p>
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105-Plymouth Colony 1623-1625
<p>Bradford was a well respected Governor and was not allowed to retire. He and the colonists had to put up with what Weston’s group had done among the Indians and the Plymouth trouble makers John Lyford and Oldame passing letters filled with untruths back to England. Captain Standish led his group against a group of Indians who were planning to attack Weston’s group and Plymouth. Through all these mishaps the colony was progressing even though they did experience a six week drought.</p>
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104-Pilgrims Proving Themselves
<p>With the arrival of the Fortune, more colonists were added to Plymouth and not being well prepared, more of a hindrance than anything else. Next to show up is a group of adventurers posing to establish a new colony in Virginia. An unruly bunch counters to the civilized Puritans.  The Puritans had demonstrated their worth in Indian relations and their husbandry of the land. Weston’s crowd was causing trouble with Indians and a headache for those of Plymouth. The Indian interpreter, Squanto passes away and Winslow saves the life of Massasoyt.</p>
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103-Pilgrims Meeting the Neighbors
<p>Half of the original colonists made it through that first winter; they were still bound and determined to make a go of it. They had a valuable ally in the Indian interpreter, Tisquantum or called by Bradford, Squanto. He would introduce the colonists to their surrounding neighbors and relations were developing well. Massasoyt and many of his followers joined in with the colony’s first thanksgiving, and finally letters that were later sent home to encourage others to make the trip and join the Plymouth colony. The pilgrims had built a successful home for themselves.</p>
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102-Pilgrims Start Setting Up Shop
<p>After a couple more ventures to pick that final spot, construction started on the Pilgrims new home. Many of these first colonists had already passed away from the cold. It was mentioned that this was a “mild” winter, what if it had been a normal one? They were finally visited by an Indian who knew the English people and spoke their language well, enough to give them a history of why so many fields and houses had been left empty. The years 1616-1619 were an absolutely terrible time period for these Indians especially the Massachusetts. The English king looked upon this as a great opportunity for his people. So starts the Plymouth colony.</p>
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101-Pilgrims Searching for Ideal Spot
<p>While the Mayflower sat anchored, many ventured forward searching for the perfect location to start a colony. Time was of the essence, winter was all around them and they must start building shelter or else the health and safety of many could be in jeopardy. Coasting and exploring the land of Cape Cod Bay, the brave party of men finally laid their eyes upon the land which would proof to be most advantageous for their new home.</p>
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100th Episode
<p>To celebrate my 100th episode, family and friends were directed to ask me questions about history. I tried to make the answers not so serious but, then history is a serious matter. Come listen to a question and answer episode and what makes the Discovering America podcast tick.</p>
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99-Starting Point for the Pilgrims
<p>The so-called pilgrims had to find a country where their Puritan beliefs could be practiced without persecution. The King of England had his own beliefs and his own supremacy of which must be followed and obeyed. The group made their way to the Low Countries and lived for a few years successfully.  To start a new, in a new land, that would be the ultimate freedom. So starts the idea of sailing across the ocean for purpose of establishing a colony, which would be the perfect scenario. But, a land under the jurisdiction of England may not be the such a good plan, let’s try it anyway.</p>
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98-Pocahontas
<p>So I have here my own take on the life of Pocahontas, from the writings of John Smith, letters written and authors, Charles D. Warner and Williams Simms. No it is not like the movie so many have watched but, you say how could that be? I’m not going to go there. Enjoy.</p>
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97-John Smith the Writer
<p>After his accident, Smith returned to England, never to see Virginia again. During his down time and most likely recuperating form his injuries, he wrote and published in 1612, a descriptive book including a map about Virginia. Two years later he was ready to explorer more of the east coast of North America. He did a great job of mapping an area he would name New England, problem is nothing of great significant was found nor was the fishing enough to offset the cost of this voyage. The second voyage was a bust due to pirates or Frenchmen acting as such, that took away any possibility to further explore the coast. He could not muster enough funds to set off again and so started writing about early history to his present time and about his own experiences. A great debt is owed to Smith, who had laid the groundwork for others to follow, if they would only listen.</p>
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96-John Smith Keeping Order
<p>John Smith had so much to contend with, settlers too lazy or it was beneath them to put out any labor to construct, plant, or do whatever else the colony needed instead, sold tools, arms and others items to the Indians for corn. This couldn’t continue and neither could the mutinous men who may have been conspiring with Powhatan. And then to see what at first was thought to be enemy ships, only to find out that England had sent over more people without regard on what the colony really needed. Smith knew his commission was coming to an end but, he didn’t give up, that is, until the accident.</p>
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95-John Smith Gathering Provisions
<p>John Smith had to teach these “gentleman” from England what is was like to work a hard day’s labor. Work or starve that was the new motto and a necessary act if the colony was to feed itself. Presently, the provisions in the storehouse had not been properly stored. The English had no choice but to visit varies villages to force the Indians to make good on their promises to supply them with corn. It was soon evident that Powhatan had instructed his followers not to trade with them. So Smith thought it would be a good idea to surprise Powhatan and take, barter or whatever it took to get the provisions so desperately needed. That didn’t go so well and a similar experience unfolded at the Pamunkey village of Powhatan’s relative, Chief Opechancanough, where the English escaped with their lives due to Smith’s bravery and trying control in both situations. Even after such events, the English sailed home with the provisions they anticipated.</p>
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94-John Smith and the Chesapeake Bay
<p>Back from one voyage, he set off within three days to finish mapping and visiting with any and all who he came in contact with on the Chesapeake Bay. Many of the Indian tribes were not on friendly terms with each other; he brought many diverse chiefs together and together worked out terms for peace. This did not always happen some just like to shoot arrows at the approaching ship. With all the flying arrows not an Englishman was lost. Once back at Jamestown, Smith is elevated to president of the council. A supply ship reaches Jamestown full of new arrivals, and yet still so much to be done.</p>
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93-John Smith and His Activities
<p>John Smith was back at Jamestown but, like so many upstarts it needs to survive on its own. The colony still had to rely on the Indians for food. So far the relationship was congenial, to some extent. The Indians thought the world of English copper, and so what if a shovel came up missing. It’s when the stealing was blatant that Smith put his foot down and the outward challenge against him and others. After a visit from Pocahontas with a message from her father, Powhatan, peace and stolen items were returned. Since Smith was not allowed by decree and order of Newport to explore any inland areas, now was his chance to sail off on a voyage of discovery, the Chesapeake Bay.</p>
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92-John Smith and Jamestown
<p>At first Smith was only a council member and arrived on American soil in chains, this would soon change and the charges were dropped but, he was not well liked by other council members. Smith would be captured by a powerful Chief named Powhatan. He was scheduled to be executed but, was saved by a young girl named Pocahontas, whereby gaining the respect from the chief and receiving needed supplies from his followers. Soon many of the people of the colony became sick and many died. Smith regained his strength and did what was needed to supply the colony with food by trading with the Indians and start construction projects for necessary shelter and buildings to make the colony safe.</p>
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91 John Smith his Younger Years
<p>John Smith was a young boy when he began his life on the road. Although not a well taught school boy, what he experienced on the road you cannot learn from books. He grew into a strong and able fighter, some self-taught through reading and hard practicing. His survival, combat skills and others traits came from harrowing battles. This part describes his early years before the trip across the ocean.</p>
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Christmas message
<p>Wishing you Happy Holidays and a Grrrrrreat New Year. Thanks for listening to the Discovering America Podcast.</p>
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90-Henry Hudson's Last Voyage
<p>The lower global attempt proved a failure in the search for the Northwest Passage. The fourth voyage carried them to the cold climate once again. Traveling west right about Iceland, some of the crew had words aimed at Hudson but, against his better judgment the little ship continued on. Ice and rocks were a problem eventually, making their way up and around the land mass and sailing as far south as the continent would allow, wintering at James Bay. In the spring, the less honorable men had a different opinion of the voyage’s goal, a parting of the crew, and the worst find of mutiny.</p>
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89-Henry Hudson and his River
<p>The ship, the Half Moon, sailed as far up the Hudson River as Waterford, New York. William and four other men rowed off to explore farther up the river to make sure there was enough depth for the ship. Well their findings were that the Half Moon had reached the furthermost point possible. Henry Hudson and the crew were visited by many Indians along their travels. Some were cordial and some were not. The third voyage was financed by the Dutch. Upon his arrival home the English were not too happy about another country exploring “their land.” So how much farther can one travel west?</p>
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88-Henry Hudson
<p>Men tried to find a shorter distance to the Orient by sailing north and then head east passing above Norway. The greatest obstacle was the ice barrier, a free open sea was not to be found and what about the cold climate? So the eastern direction was out of the question. Hudson headed west after the crew told him that was a good idea. Hudson’s third voyage finds him near Virginia and adding to the discovery of the river that bears his name. So John what’s the weather like?</p>
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87-Jean Nicolet
<p>Nicolet became very familiar with the northwest and not just the land, but its inhabitants. First living with the Algonquins for two years on Allumette Island and then spent 8 to 9 years with the Nipissing tribe located near Lake Nipissing. With so much experience with the Indian’s language, Champlain sent him on an expedition to push father into unknown territory, something Champlain was not able to do. “Hello, my name is Jean Nicolet, how do you do?”</p>
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86-Champlain the Final Scene
<p>The coasts were becoming quite the busy place and yet France still expected to have a monopoly of the trading business with the Indians at The Three Rivers, Montréal, and Tadoussac. And what about the many ports where the fisherman hung out? The territory was immense. The conflict with France and England didn’t help matters. Here comes the English strength laying claim to New France by the commander David Kirke along with his brothers Thomas and Louis Kirke in 1629. Champlain regained command of Quebec in 1633, although on Christmas day 1635, Champlain passed away. What he left behind was invaluable, volumes of his works, maps and charts.</p>
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85-Champlain Prepares for the English
<p>The company never fulfilled its part of the bargain to supply needed provisions and manpower to keep the fort and settlement strong. Relations with the fathers of the cloth seemed to be progressing. Yet, unrest among the Indian tribes had started up again, not to mention the killings that had occurred without bringing the guilty to justice and discovering why such actions had happened in the first place. Champlain dug in and with his continued commitment used what resources were available to keep the country afloat. The changing of the Viceroy probably didn’t help matters. And then the English show up laying claim to the land of New France.</p>
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84-Champlain Keeping the Peace in New France
<p>Champlain was in charge but, he needed the King and his Lord Montmorency to be on his side, once and for all, to set precedence upon the old and new companies involved in the fur trade. New France also needed people who were willing to put their heart and mind into this venture, so far not so well. Champlain now has a new Indian friend, Miristou or Mahigan Aticq, which meant wolf and stag. And with the two Iroquois peace makers, things may be looking up for New France.</p>
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83-Champlain Setting Up House
<p>A major incident that could have upset the balance of New France was smoothed over with the sight and integrity of Champlain. Now if he could just get the cooperation of the traders and those in France, well he did have the support of the King and Duc de- Montmorency. His wife would now join him in Quebec. If only there was a Nordstrom here, my wife would be very happy.</p>
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82-Champlain and Another War
<p>This trip Champlain sails with 4 friars who start the process of building their new homes and chapels, with the intent of converting the Indians to Christianity. Champlain sets out to fulfill another promise of helping his Indian allies against the Iroquois. This time around he was late and the war party left without him. Along the way, he would visit many Indian villages cementing the friendship and trade that was so important to him. The war or minor engagement was a bust; they headed back with their tails between their legs. Champlain was forced to spend the winter of 1615-16 with the Algonquins, but he made the best of it, taking notes of their life style and customs, along with visiting many surrounding villages. If only I had a camera.</p>
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81-Champlain Explores the Frontier
<p>Poutrincourt was having trouble with the aristocrats in France, being forced to allow the Jesuits into his realm and trying to keep Port Royal to himself. Marquise de Guercheville had the means and the desire to save the souls of New France, take the land for herself and of course, profit from the fur trade. Champlain had connections with Count de Soissons, Charles de Bourbon and would stand behind his New France ambitions. He really wanted to witness the Northern Sea. A man by the name of Nicholas de Vignau, expressed that he had been there. So off they went, to bad Nicholas was lying.</p>
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80-Champlain and His Progress
<p>Champlain had to make good on his promises so, he set out with the Algonquin, Huron and Montagnais Indian tribes to battle the Iroquois, the firing of the French arquebuses un-nerved the Iroquois, and  the battle was soon over. Once this was behind him, he set out to lay the groundwork for another settlement, La Place Royale - Montreal. Champlain wanted to experience the unknown lands of these Indian tribes, so building a friendship with these people was important, so far so good. Does anyone know the way to San José?</p>
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79-Champlain Creates the Colony of Quebec
<p>De-Monts’ commission extended his monopoly of the fur trade for one more year, and so two ships were fitted out at the port of Honfleur. Pontgrave’s trading post at Tadoussac was still holding on. The Basque fur traders were trading with the Indians and were not inclined to honor his piece of paper from the king of France about the fur trade. Champlain heads down the St. Lawrence to create a most wonderful colony, Quebec. So how is the fishing here?</p>
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78-Champlain Explores the Coast
<p>Poutrincourt was driven to make sure his little trading post at Port Royal would continue to flourish. Champlain was still on the look-out for that perfect location to start his new colony. He would explore again Nauset Harbor, Cape Cod Bay and a little bit beyond. His crew paid a visit to many Indians, noting their customs and living conditions, not all were friendly. Lescarbot was, may I say, along for the ride to inspire his writings. Is that Plymouth Harbor over there? Yes but, not the spot I was looking for</p>
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77-Samuel de Champlain
<p>The fisherman of the world had been sailing across the Atlantic for years, some even trading European wares for firs with the Indians in Canada. Aymar de Chastes would beg from Henry IV a patent to colonize the New World. He formed a company with the more prominent among the merchants. Two small ships set sail one commanded by Francois Grave Du Pont and the other by Samuel de Champlain. Frenchman were again leaving their footprints on the North American continent.</p>
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76-Roanoke Colony
<p>Sir Walter Raleigh wanted to be a part of the colonization of the New World. He had the financial abilities to fund such a venture. And so with a patient in hand from the Queen of England, the voyages began to establish a colony on the shores of what they called Wingandacon, later called Virginia and today is actually the state of North Carolina. The settlement only lasted 10 months; the settlers were picked up by none other than Sir Francis Drake. If there was a Walmart there, we would have stayed.</p>
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75-Francis Drake and One Last Effort
<p>The battles of Gravelines pushed the Spanish back. Francis tried to pursue the survivors but the weather changed his mind. When Phillip heard that England was cutting the dragon loose, that being Drake, he had many of his sea ports fortified, Francis would soon realize the days of plundering were behind him. In the name of the Queen, I want your gold!</p>
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74-Francis Drake and the Gravelines Sea Battle
<p>The fire in the eyes of Sir Francis Drake was not dead; he knew Spain was planning to attack England, but when? The Queen wanted a defensive war well; Francis wasn’t a defensive type of guy. He wanted to destroy the Spanish armada once and for all. The fight would come to England and in the age of sails sometimes it came down to the temperament of Mother Nature. “Hold on tight mates, here comes another gale!”</p>
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73-Francis Drake Visits Spanish Ports
<p>Francis Drake had the abilities to have men flock to his side; they knew action was in their future. He also had the tactics to wage destruction to those who fought against him upon the high seas and had strategies to conquer coastal settlements. Francis was a thorn in the side of King Phillip; these next few assaults would only further his irritation.</p>
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72-Francis Drake Around the World
<p>While Queen Elizabeth was busy figuring out if a war with Spanish was emanate, Francis slipped away on a mission of his own. The sailors on board were told they were bound for Alexandra but, after a wrong turn, they must have realized this trip was headed for more interesting waters. Francis Drake and his ships would load up on Spanish treasures. This was not all, second on the agenda was a trip around the world. Come one come all! Who is ready for a terror trip through the Magellan straits?</p>
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71-Francis Drake the Pirate
<p>England and Spain are in the middle of deciding whether to go to war or not. Drake had other plans so he slipped down to the Spanish Main to help himself to the treasures sitting in their storehouses. The ex-Spanish African slaves, the Cimarrones or Maroons as called by the sailors would go along with Drake’s schemes. Shipping was not what it used to be; now there was Drake and company. The ships dragging from the weight of their cargo arrived back at England. Only to find out that Spain had a price on his head, time to lay low. To Ireland I go. No ship was safe with Francis Drake at the helm.</p>
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70-Francis Drake
<p>This episode mixes in the history of the unsettled affairs in Europe and how a very famous pirate or should I say privateer got involved. Francis Drake is just getting his feet wet with the fight against the Spanish control of the wealth coming out of the Indies and beyond.</p>
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69-Sebastian Vizcaino: More of his Travels
<p>Winter was coming on, the temperature was dropping and many of the men were sick. Admiral Gomez on the Santo Tomas was instructed to head home with letters, journals and charts and give an account to the viceroy what they had discovered. Unfortunately that’s not all, the ship would carry home. The ship would be loaded with the sickest of men. Scurvy had taken over the ships. Later on, a storm would separate the San Diego and the Tres Reyes. The San Diego and Vizcaino’s crew would soon turn around while; the Tres Reyes would continue sailing north a little longer. All three ships made it home but, many of the sailors did not. Remind me to take along barrels of limes and apples for our next voyage.</p>
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Interview with Maggie Espinosa
<p>This is a special edition of the Discovering America podcast, an interview with author Maggie Espinosa where she explains her extraordinary journey walking to 21 Spanish Missions in the Southern California region.</p>
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68-Sebastian Vizcaino along the California Coast
<p>The three ships, Santo Tomas, San Diego and the Tres Reyes would continue exploring and mapping the California coast in search of that perfect port to be used by the Spanish ships as a stopping point on the Philippine trade route. Most of the time the natives were very friendly towards the strangers but, then again this wasn’t the first time the Europeans had visited these shores. Juan Cabrillo had made his way up this coast and then there is the ship wreck of San Agustin which left some unfortunate soles somewhere along this coast. Yep, I think San Diego bay will be a great place to watch the sun set.</p>
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67-Sebastian Vizcaino
<p>The Spanish discovered an ocean route from the west coast of North America and took control of the Philippines. Now the west coast was the target of the other European nations. It would best to secure a port, a harbor, anyplace as a safe haven for the incoming Spanish galleons. Cabrillo had explored the western coast but that was several years ago. Spain sends another group of ships to search out and map the coast to find that safe haven. Sebastian Vizcaino takes on that challenge, a good choice he had been a trader for several years between Mexico and the Orient and was lucky enough to be on a Galleon when it was plundered by Cavendish. California here we come!</p>
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66-Juan de Onate Visits the Colorado
<p>Coming back from the east and finding San Juan almost deserted, this was very disheartening for Onate. With the help of Saldivar after talking to the king, the settlement was revived. Now it was time for Onate to venture towards the sea. His group would experience the great Colorado and visit many of the people who lived among its banks, well at least one side of it. After the men smelled the sea breeze, they retraced their steps back to New Mexico, all accounted for sir!</p>
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65-Juan de Onate Heads East
<p>Juan de Onate, Vicente de Saldivar, two religious men, Fray Francisco de Velasco, and Fray Pedro de Vergara along with 70 hand-picked soldiers, and let’s not forget the 700 horses would set off in June 1601 to explore the country to the east or to see Coronado’s Quivira first hand. Along the way the group would come in contact with the Apache, Escanjaques and the Quivira Indian tribes. Far to the east around the Arkansas River, the friendly atmosphere was no longer, the Spaniards would have to fight to stay alive. It’s best to know who your true friends are before the sun sets.</p>
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64-Juan de Onate Visits the Surrounding Pueblos
<p>While Saldivar was off playing with the buffalo, Onate decided to visit the surrounding pueblos and pay a visit to the Salinas and Xumanas tribes. They headed westward to Zuni and onto Moqui or Hopi villages and also discovered some salt marshes. Onate’s journey among the many pueblos went well, not so with Juan Zaldivar and his group at the pueblo of Acoma. So many people so little time to say hello.</p>
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63-Juan de Onate and the Settlement of San Juan
<p>Onate’s group builds the settlement of San Juan while he ventures and visits the outlying communities. In his travels the natives respond in a friendly manner towards the Spanish. Although trouble does rear its head among the settlers at San Juan, they were expecting riches that did not abound. With a tree and a rope this matter was soon taken care of.  And then Saldivar was sent east to capture some buffalo, that didn’t go so well. We call them “wild” animals for a reason. Seen any prairie dogs lately? I think you could catch one of those.</p>
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62-Juan de Onate
<p>The next Spanish Explorer on the scene with approval from the crown would be Juan de Onate, who had the means and drive to make this expedition to New Mexico a reality. The new viceroy, Gaspar de Zuniga, 5th count of Monterrey had a different agenda. Inspection after inspection was ordered by the viceroy, two years would pass. When can I leave?</p>
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61-Journey of Gaspar Castano
<p>So many men of means wanted to throw their hat into the arena to become the governor of the New Mexican region. You would think that would be Don Antonio Espejo but, that was not to be, politics. A changing of the viceroys may have added to the indecisions. A man by the name of Gasper Castano de Sosa acting as Lieutenant Governor of Nuevo Leon thought he could pack up and head out, without written permission. Ok, I was wrong, may I keep my head?</p>
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60-Journeys of Ibarra, Rodriquez and Espejo
<p>It wasn’t the big names we have all hear about in books that were now exploring, or re-exploring the country, no it would be miners looking for that next bonanza of silver or religious figures expiring to convert the natives. Ibarra’s uncle had already made in big, now it would be his turn. Exploring northern Mexico he would establish a new region, Nueva Vizcaya along with new mines, as well as creating new towns. Next onto the scene came Fray Agustin Rodriquez, Juan de Santa Maria and Francisco Lopez. They would give their lives for what they believed in. Don Antonio Espejo and Padre Bernardino Beltran along with soldiers and native servants headed out to follow in their footsteps. Their journey, for the most part, crossed the path of many friendly Indian tribes and witnessed many established pueblos. The Spanish were introducing themselves to the natives of Arizona and New Mexico.</p>
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59-Tristan de Luna Homeward Bound
<p>It seems the Luna expedition was on a downward spiral. Everybody was tired and hungry; the necessary supplies were not inward bound as needed. When Major Suaz arrived in Mobile Bay, the group was all together once again. Settling the Gulf Coast was secondary, the king’s top priority was now colonizing Santa Elena, so heading home was a good idea, start anew I say.</p>
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58-Tristan de Luna In la Florida
<p>With all the planning that went into this quest to colonize Florida, hard work was still ahead of the Luna party. Mother Nature put a huge damper on their progress; it was now, survival mode.</p>
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57-Tristan de Luna Sails to la Florida
<p>Luna would have his hands full sailing off in 13 ships to the coast of Florida with over 1500 people and 140 horses aboard. A voyage this size took careful planning. The Viceroy of New Spain (Mexico) Luis de Velasco and King Phillip of Spain were eager to establish a foothold in la Florida. Once this was complete an overland route could be established to Santa Elena on the eastern coast of North America. So does anyone know where we are going? Wait! I’ll Google it.</p>
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56-Juan Pedro's Forts
<p>The Spanish explored the states of the Carolinas and Tennessee. Juan Pedro and his company would build and man many forts along the way, although they didn’t last long. The Indian villages that existed near these forts were expected to supply the Spaniards with food. Is there anything on the menu other than maize?</p>
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55-Juan Pedro's Explorations
<p>The Spanish were trying to keep what was theirs, not an easy task. Pedro would start off from the eastern coast of North America and rediscover the lands that Ferdinand de Soto explored 25 years earlier. The Indians were nice enough to supply the food that the Spaniards needed every step of the way but, where is the shiny stuff?</p>
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54-Ribault's Last Days and the Revenge of Gourges
<p>Ribault acted hastily against the Spanish and it didn’t help that his fleet encountered a storm that destroyed them.  The Spanish would eliminate the French from America for the time being. But in the wake of this atrocity against the French Dominique de Gourgues would gather ships and men together to save the grace of France. Forgive and forget not this time.</p>
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53-Jean Ribaut His Story
<p>After the clashing of swords stopped it was time to sail west but this time it would be to establish a colony for the sake of religion.  Admiral de Coligny would choose Jean Ribaut to command and establish a French Protestant (Huguenots) colony on the land called Florida. The Spanish would not take kindly to this “invasion”. The Spanish commander Pedro Menendez would have the last word and not at all respectably.  Can’t we all just get along?</p>
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52-Third Voyage of Jacques Cartier
<p>With the war between France and Spain finally over, five years had passed since his last voyage. The Indians he had promised to return to their homeland within twelve moons had all passed away except a 12 year old girl who was now their interpreter. The king put Sieur de Roberval in charge of this third voyage but, he wasn’t ready to sail. So Cartier sailed off with five ships on May 23, 1541. After spending time with the Indians and the new chief, Cartier loaded the ship with diamonds and gold which turned out to be quartz crystals and mica, and sailed back to France. If only I knew my minerals.</p>
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51-Second Voyage of Jacques Cartier part two
<p>Cartier and his small band of men made their way to the village of Hochelaga and received a wonderful welcome. The Indians insisted that they should climb to the top of Mount Royal and see something they were very proud of, the Frenchmen accommodated the request. What they saw below was the flowing fields of corn and the Indian village of Hochelaga, a place that would become the site of Montreal, Canada.  The Indians and the French would endure the winter but, with it came the loss of many lives. The “scurvy” would take its toll upon them. The French finally make their way back to the homeland.</p>
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50-Second Voyage of Jacques Cartier
<p>Supported by the excited King of France, Cartier would sail for another go of it, looking for that northwest passage.  Among the three ships would be the two Indian interpreters, Taignoagny and Domagaya taken from their village on the first voyage. The group would arrive at the Indian village of Stadacrone. From here the French desired to sail to the village of Hochelaga. The chief Donnacona of Stadacrone did not want them to leave. But we have so much to see, please let us go.</p>
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Happy Holidays
<p>Happy Holidays to you and see you next year with more of the Discovering America podcast</p>
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49-First Voyage of Jacques Cartier
<p>In two ships and 60 men, a Frenchman from St. Malo, Jacques Cartier sails west to the fishing grounds searching for the western passage.  Along the way he meets up with friendly natives, walruses and polar bears.   The first voyage would pass through the Strait of Belle Isle, along the southern coast of Newfoundland and hit varies points and capes in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  The weather would be changing soon and not equipped for winter, the ships sailed home.  No passage but, we did taste bear meat.</p>
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48-Voyage of John Rut
<p>John Rut’s early voyages were picking up wine for the King of England at Bordeaux.  In 1527 with Rut in command, two ships, the Mary Guildford and the Samson headed for the coast of Newfoundland.  The Samson and all aboard would be lost in a storm.  The Mary Guildford later entered a good harbor called St. Johns where several fishing vessels from different countries were present.  Soon after an English ship sailed into the Caribbean, same ship, you decide.</p>
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47-Cabrillo and the California Coast part two
<p>The season was starting to change from here on out they experienced rough weather.  Finally the ships arrived back at the islands they named San Lucas.  Winter quarters would be set up on the island of La Posesion, later renamed to Juan Rodriquez after the death of Cabrillo.  The voyage would continue and give a glimpse of the western coast of North America so that others could follow.</p>
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46-Cabrillo and the California Coast
<p>Starting with a little background history concerning the exploits on pacific side of Mexico to the bottom part of California, this episode begins the voyage of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and his two ships, the San Salvador and the Victoria, sailing off from the Puerto de Navidad on June 27, 1542.</p>
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45-How America Got Its Name
<p>Columbus thought he had discovered a passage to the orient and so the maps of the day showed his discoveries as islands.  It would be the voyage of Vespucci sailing down the eastern side of South America that would cause so much interest.  The map makers labeled the land we know as Brazil with the name “Mundus Novus” or “New World”.  With the refinements of charts and maps the New World took on the name “America”.</p>
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44-Final Voyages of Vespucci
<p>The fourth voyage to the west did not turn out to be of any great importance. Being left behind by the captain, Vespucci and the men that remained would catch birds with their hands and build a fortress.  The fifth and sixth voyages of Vespucci were not intended to be expeditions of discovery, nope..  load those ships with gold and pearls.</p>
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43-Third Voyage of Vespucci
<p>This voyage would change how the world was viewed, Mundus Novus or “New World” but, who cares, where is that passage to the orient?</p> <p>If you would like to read the letters of Vespucci you can find them at: http://mith.umd.edu/eada/html/display.php?docs=vespucci_letters.xml</p>
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42 - Vespucci Sails With Ojeda and Cosa
<p>Three ships commanded by Juan de Ojeda along with the great pilot Juan de La Cosa and Amerigo Vespucci would sail off for parts unknown, well not quite.  Please join me for what is considered the second voyage of Vespucci.</p>
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41-The Beginnings of Amerigo Vespucci
<p>How could I talk about the discovery of America without involving this man, Amerigo Vespucci?  His history relies so much on two letters written to a friend.  He mentions a book that would cover the accounts of his voyages, a book never written?  Or just never published and remains in someone’s deep dark cellar?  You can find the letter describing his first voyage at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1497vespucci-america.asp</p>
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40 - John Cabot and Others Explore the West
<p>Why should the Spanish have all the fun?  Other European Nations started exploring to the west to rediscover the lands in that direction.  The passage to the orient would be the prize.</p>
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39-Up the Eastern Coast with Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon, Estevao Gomez and Giovanni Verrazzano
<p>The voyages by Ayllon, Gomez and Verrazzano made it possible to map, describe inhabitants and certain features along the eastern coast of the North America continent.  The Europeans now had a great basis of knowledge but, still no passage to the orient was discovered.</p>
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38 - de Soto's Group Homeward Bound
<p>After setting up winter quarters, building the ships was the next priority.  O wait, maybe not, what about the Indian tribes massing an army preparing to attack the Spanish.  One tribe points the finger at another when all is said and done, the Spanish end up siding with Guachoya tribe.  With that complete all is well, not so fast, the Quigaltam tribe across the Mississippi will have the last word.  Now it’s a race to get away from them.  Get me home..</p>
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37 - Luis de Moscoso Heads West
<p>Moscoso is now the new commander of the expedition of Florida.  The journey west does not turn up any of the riches that this whole endeavor was supposed to accomplish.  Evidence to back up the rumor of other Spanish farther west was not found.  So to backtrack through the country just traveled seemed the best alternative.  Homeward bound..</p>
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36 - de Soto The End of a Legend
<p>The Spanish army is making their way through the state of Arkansas.  They will pass by many villages, not without conflict.  The army set up winter quarters in the village of Autiamque.  They would lose a vital member and soon after another.  The quest for gold is no longer, let’s build some ships and go home.</p>
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35-de Soto Meets Casqui and Pacaha
<p>The army is traveling along the Mississippi where he meets up with two chiefs Casqui and Pacaha.   The Spanish get caught up again with animosities between the two tribes.  De Soto is able to leave on friendly terms, the two tribes, I’m not so sure but, de Soto did his best to bring them together.  And the search for gold continues.</p>
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34-de Soto Meets the Mississippi River
<p>The army is breaking up winter camp located at the village of Chickasaw.  They started off in a northwesterly direction marching through the state of Mississippi.  After a few fights with the natives along the way, the Spanish feasted their eyes upon the great Mississippi River.  What a swim this is going to be.</p>
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33-de Soto and the Battle of Mauvila
<p>The great battle between the warriors of chief Tuscaloosa and the Spanish army.   After leaving the village in ashes they traveled to the village of Chickasaw to winter the army.  Does anyone around here have a ticket back to New Spain?  I am ready to go home.</p>
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32-de Soto and His Continued Search For Gold
<p>The travels of de Soto and his Army through the states of North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia.  They would cover so much ground and meet so many different tribes.</p>
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31-de Soto and the Princess
<p>The Spanish army parts ways with Patofa and then meets up with the Princess of Cofachiqui.  No gold or silver but they made a haul on pearls.</p>
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30-de Soto and Patofa
<p>The Spanish get wrapped up in the grievances of the next group of natives.  The natives commanded by Patofa and the Spanish head out to take revenge.   Juan de Anasco would observe a village in the province of Cofachiqui.  Where is the GOLD!!!!</p>
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29-de Soto in Apalachee Country
<p>de Soto and his army heading west along the top of Florida to the great Apalachee province, home to the fiercest warriors in Florida.  The army would winter at the village of Anhayea.  From here Juan de Anasco would travel south and discover an excellent bay and the remnants of Panfilo de Narvaez’s failed expedition.</p>
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28-Three Chiefs and de Soto
<p>The Spanish army's trek north where they meet three Chiefs that were brothers.  Two of them controlled half the territory the other half was overseen by chief Vitachuco, where de Soto and his troop were currently passing through.  The three chiefs would get along great with the Spanish….NOT!!</p>
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27-de Soto and His Travels Through Western Florida
<p>The Spanish found an interpreter, the young man, Juan Ortiz, who spent 8 years of his life in the Indian village of chief Ucita and then ran off to live in the village of Mocoso for another 3 years.   The Spanish begin their travels north.  I wonder if this expedition through Florida would have been much easier if the previous trip by Panifilo de Narvaez and his group would have established a greater friendship with the Indians.  Things you wish you would have known ahead of time but, the Spanish push forward.</p>
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26-de Soto Says, "Florida Here We Come"
<p>The grand lifestyle that was now de Soto’s back in Spain.  Was this enough?  No!!!  Florida was his for the taking.  The preparations begin and the gallant men who sign up for a piece of the action.  All aboard let’s go...</p>
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25-de Soto, Pizarro and the Conquest of Peru
<p>A continuation of the story of de Soto’s friend Codro and his fate, and finishes with de Soto’s participation in the conquest of Peru.</p>
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24-Ferdinand de Soto
<p>The beginnings of a Spanish conquistador named Ferdinand de Soto, where he came from and the hardships he had to endure.</p>
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23-Coronado Heading Home
<p>The highlights on what the armies had seen and what happened after Coronado’s accident.  There was no more wind in the sails.  Ending this expedition was not what they wanted to do but, after all that had happened, it was time.  So with the sand in their pockets, they headed for home. </p>
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22-Further Travels of Coronado and His Men
<p>The armies of Coronado continue discovering the many pueblos along their path.  Especially the “Rock of Acuco, the oldest inhabited city on the North American continent.</p>
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21-Coronado and his Men in New Mexico
<p>The armies of Coronado exploring the landscape of New Mexico and seeing buffalo for the first time.   It was during this part of the expedition that the Spanish army fought the Indians at Tiguex and then tried to make peace with them during the winter months with little success.  Does anybody out here have a road map?</p>
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20-The Continued Adventures of Coronado and His Men
<p>Captain Diaz and his men camped along the Colorado River.  Coronado and his company headed for Cibola.   Coronado ordered Don Garcia Lopez de Cardenas to investigate a river to the northwest, another section of the Colorado River.  The amazement that must have captivated Diaz, Cardenas and their men by seeing the Grand Canyon and the immense space and beauty of this area for the first time, O wait these places were a disappointment and an end to their travels in that direction.</p>
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19-Beginning Adventure of Coronado
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><span style= "line-height: 115%;">Starting with travels of the</span> <span style="line-height: 115%;">Franciscan Monk, Fray Marcos of Nizza, who may have stretched the truth on what he found. </span> <span style="line-height: 115%;">Francisco Vázquez de Coronado would be sent to follow up on Marcos’ reports, the discovery of the spectacular “Seven Cities”.  Here begins the adventure …  </span></span></p>
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18-Vaca Castillo Estevanico Dorantes Home at Last
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">This episode finishes the travels of the four remaining men that took over eight to years to complete and the many villages and Indians they met along the way.  Vaca would speak against the Spanish slave trade and may have gotten him into trouble in his later years.   The return of these four men with their stories would prompt others with a desire to prepare for further exploration to uncover the truth about the fabled “Seven Cites”.</span></p>
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17-And Then There Were Four
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><span style= "line-height: 115%;">The continuation of the men that remained alive.  Two groups of Spaniards either became too sick and passed away or were killed by the Indians. </span> <span style="line-height: 115%;">Lope de Oviedo</span> <span style= "line-height: 115%;">would stay with the Indians and take his chances.  Fourteen remained but were scattered among the different tribes.  And then there were four, Andres</span> <span style="line-height: 115%;">Dorantes, Alonso del Castillo and the africain slave, Estevanico, who would travel among the Indian tribes of the land, here comes the Spanish celebrities.</span></span></p>
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16-Narvaez and Crew Holding On
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">What’s left of Narvaez’s dwindling band, its trials and errors.  Five barges were constructed to take to the sea.  By not sticking together, each individual barge was on its own.  Vaca and one other barge would later meet up but, in a storm that barge and crew were lost.  This episode ends with just Vaca and his group clinging to life but, in the care of Indians.  The Spanish were uneasy, were they to be sacrificed to their gods?</span></p>
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15-Narvaez Back to Florida
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><span style= "line-height: 115%;">The events and activities that will lead us to the next great adventure.  Five ships will sail off for an expedition commanded by</span> <span style= "line-height: 115%;">Panifilo de Narvaez to the Florida coast.  </span></span></p>
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14-A Story of Six
<p><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><span style= "line-height: 115%; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif;">I expand on the stories of six men who added to the progression and discovery of America. They are</span> <span class="srtitle"><span style= "line-height: 115%; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; color: #333333;"> Diego Velázquez</span></span><span style= "line-height: 115%; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif;">,</span> <span style= "line-height: 115%; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif;">Diego and Bartholomew Columbus, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, Antonio de Alaminos and Vicente Yanez Pinzon.</span></span><span style= "font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"> </span></p>
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13- Hernando Cortes - part two
<p><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif;"> The part finishes up with Cortes’ conquest of the Aztec empire and the final years of the man we know as Cortes.</span></p>
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12-Hernando Cortes Journey to Mexico
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><span style= "line-height: 115%;">The man called</span> <span style= "line-height: 115%;">Hernando Cortes and the beginnings of his adventure with the great empire of the Aztecs.</span></span></p>
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11-Voyages of 1508 By Solis, Pinzon and Ocampo
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><span style= "line-height: 115%;">Other voyages that were undertaken during the year 1508.  One headed by Juan Diaz de Solis and Vicente Yanez Pinzon, and a second by</span> <span style= "line-height: 115%;">Sebastian de Ocampo.  Cuba would be colonized and its appointed governor, Diego Velazquez, would organize voyages destined to discover other unknown regions.</span></span></p>
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10-Juan Ponce de Leon
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">A further discussion of maps of the world.  Just what did the early explorers have in their hands?  I end with the partial exploration of Florida by Juan Ponce de Leon.</span></p>
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09-Christopher Columbus' Fourth Voyage
<p><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif;"> The description of Christopher Columbus’ fourth and final voyage, my two-cents and a discussion of maps in the days of Columbus.</span></p>
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08-Christopher Columbus' Third Voyage
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">The description of Christopher Columbus’ third voyage and the trouble created by so many against the Columbus brothers.  All he was trying to do was to discover that passage, he had missed finding on his other two voyages.   I know it’s around here someplace…….</span></p>
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07-A letter written by Christopher Columbus
<p><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif;"> A letter that was written by Christopher Columbus to Luis de Sant Angel while sailing back to Spain aboard the Nina.  He writes an account of what was discovered and how grateful he was to be sailing home, although the return trip was not without its own set of hardships.</span></p>
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06-Christoper Columbus' Second Voyage
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">Christopher Columbus’ second voyage across the ocean but, this time well financed.   Over 1500 people from all walks of life, among them would be many that would add their name to the history of the world.  Everything was loaded, horses, cattle probably even the kitchen sink.   They weren’t coming to visit.  Nope, they were coming to settle a new land.  What riches lay before them, only time would tell?</span></p>
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05-Christopher Columbus' First Voyage part three
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">The final leg of the first voyage with Christopher Columbus, the crew and remaining two ships, the Pinta and the Nina.  The trip across the ocean was not an easy task.  They fought one of the worst winter storms the coast had seen in years.  And throw in the trouble with Portugal.   Yea, this was a great expedition from start to finish.</span></p>
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04-Christopher Columbus' First Voyage part two
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">Christopher Columbus and the crew of three ships that made it across the ocean.  The amazement on what lay before them, were their eyes playing tricks on them.  They had found a piece of paradise.  The ships would travel around so many islands of beauty.   The natives were very receptive to them, well maybe not all of them.  What a discovery these men had made……the uncertainty while at sea for so many days was now behind them. </span></p>
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03-Columbus' First Voyage
<p><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:RelyOnVML/> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">One of the greatest voyages of all time.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes;"> </span> Three tiny ships crossing uncharted water to discover a new world. It would be a new destiny for the Europeans but a complete change for the natives in the western hemisphere. <span style= "mso-spacerun: yes;">  </span>Here starts Columbus’ first voyage.</span></p>
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02-The Vikings part two
<p> <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:RelyOnVML/> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">A continuation of the Viking sagas on the North American continent and what is left behind.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes;"> </span> A brief description of the different types of Viking ships such as the one discovered in Norway and the replica built for the Chicago World’s fair.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes;"> </span></span></p>
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01-The Vikings
<p><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">I start with the sagas of the Vikings on Iceland, their journey west to Greenland and the discovery of the North American continent.<span style= "mso-spacerun: yes;"> </span> Along the way I introduce the characters that had the most impact with this journey.</span></p>
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Introduction to the Discovering America Podcast
<p><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style= "font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%;">I introduce myself and the “Discovering America” podcast.</span></p>
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